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Oregon Revised Statutes (ORS)
2013 Edition


The Oregon Revised Statutes are codified laws of the State of Oregon. The ORS is published every two years. Each edition of the ORS incorporates all laws, and changes to laws, enacted by the Legislative Assembly through the odd-numbered year regular session referenced in the volume titles for that edition. Purchase the Oregon Revised Statutes.

 Oregon Rules of Civil Procedure (2013)

 

SCOPE; CONSTRUCTION; APPLICATION; RULE; CITATION

 

1 A Scope

1 B Construction

1 C Application

1 D “Rule” defined and local rules

1 E Use of declaration under penalty of perjury in lieu of affidavit; “declaration” defined

1 F Electronic filing

1 G Citation

 

FORM OF ACTION

 

2 One form of action

 

COMMENCEMENT

 

3 Commencement of action

 

JURISDICTION

(Personal)

 

4 Personal jurisdiction

4 A Local presence or status

4 B Special jurisdiction statutes

4 C Local act or omission

4 D Local injury; foreign act

4 E Local services, goods, or contracts

4 F Local property

4 G Director or officer of a domestic corporation

4 H Taxes or assessments

4 I Insurance or insurers

4 J Securities

4 K Certain marital and domestic relations actions

4 L Other actions

4 M Personal representative

4 N Joinder of claims in the same action

4 O Defendant defined

 

(In Rem)

 

5 Jurisdiction in rem

 

(Without Service)

 

6 Personal jurisdiction without service of summons

 

SUMMONS

 

7 A Definitions

7 B Issuance

7 C(1) Contents

7 C(1) (a) Title

7 C(1) (b) Direction to defendant

7 C(1) (c) Subscription; post office address

7 C(2) Time for response

7 C(3) Notice to party served

7 C(3) (a) In general

7 C(3) (b) Service for counterclaim

7 C(3) (c) Service on persons liable for attorney fees

7 D Manner of service

7 D(1) Notice required

7 D(2) Service methods

7 D(2) (a) Personal service

7 D(2) (b) Substituted service

7 D(2) (c) Office service

7 D(2) (d) Service by mail

7 D(2) (d)(i) Generally

7 D(2) (d)(ii) Calculation of time

7 D(3) Particular defendants

7 D(3) (a) Individuals

7 D(3) (a)(i) Generally

7 D(3) (a)(ii) Minors

7 D(3) (a)(iii) Incapacitated persons

7 D(3) (a)(iv) Tenant of a mail agent

7 D(3) (b) Corporations including, but not limited to, professional corporations and cooperatives

7 D(3) (b)(i) Primary service method

7 D(3) (b)(ii) Alternatives

7 D(3) (c) Limited liability companies

7 D(3) (c)(i) Primary service method

7 D(3) (c)(ii) Alternatives

7 D(3) (d) Limited partnerships

7 D(3) (d)(i) Primary service method

7 D(3) (d)(ii) Alternatives

7 D(3) (e) General partnerships and limited liability partnerships

7 D(3) (f) Other unincorporated association subject to suit under a common name

7 D(3) (g) State

7 D(3) (h) Public bodies

7 D(3) (i) Vessel owners and charterers

7 D(4) Particular actions involving motor vehicles

7 D(4) (a) Actions arising out of use of roads, highways, streets, or premises open to the public; service by mail

7 D(4) (b) Notification of change of address

7 D(5) Service in foreign country

7 D(6) Court order for service; service by publication

7 D(6) (a) Court order for service by other method

7 D(6) (b) Contents of published summons

7 D(6) (c) Where published

7 D(6) (d) Mailing summons and complaint

7 D(6) (e) Unknown heirs or persons

7 D(6) (f) Defending before or after judgment

7 D(6) (g) Defendant who cannot be served

7 E By whom served; compensation

7 F Return; proof of service

7 F(1) Return of summons

7 F(2) Proof of service

7 F(2) (a) Service other than publication

7 F(2) (a)(i) Certificate of service when summons not served by sheriff or deputy

7 F(2) (a)(ii) Certificate of service by sheriff or deputy

7 F(2) (b) Publication

7 F(2) (c) Making and certifying affidavit

7 F(2) (d) Form of certificate, affidavit or declaration

7 F(3) Written admission

7 F(4) Failure to make proof; validity of service

7 G Disregard of error; actual notice

 

PROCESS

 

8 A Process

8 B Where county is a party

8 C Service or execution

8 D Proof of service or execution

 

SERVICE AND FILING OF PLEADINGS AND OTHER PAPERS

 

9 A Service; when required

9 B Service; how made

9 C Filing; proof of service

9 D When filing not required

9 E Filing with the court defined

9 F Service by telephonic facsimile communication device

9 G Service by e-mail

 

TIME

 

10 A Computation

10 B Unaffected by expiration of term

10 C Additional time after service by mail

11 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

PLEADINGS LIBERALLY CONSTRUED; DISREGARD OF ERROR

 

12 A Liberal construction

12 B Disregard of error or defect not affecting substantial right

 

KINDS OF PLEADINGS ALLOWED; FORMER PLEADINGS ABOLISHED

 

13 A Pleadings

13 B Pleadings allowed

13 C Pleadings abolished

 

MOTIONS

 

14 A Motions; in writing; grounds

14 B Form

 

TIME FOR FILING PLEADINGS OR MOTIONS

 

15 A Time for filing motions and pleadings

15 B Pleading after motion

15 C Responding to amended pleading

15 D Enlarging time to plead or do other act

 

FORM OF PLEADINGS

 

16 A Captions; names of parties

16 B Concise and direct statement; paragraphs; separate statement of claims or defenses

16 C Consistency in pleading alternative statements

16 D Adoption by reference

 

SIGNING OF PLEADINGS, MOTIONS AND OTHER PAPERS; SANCTIONS

 

17 A Signing by party or attorney; certificate

17 B Pleadings, motions and other papers not signed

17 C Certifications to court

17 D Sanctions

17 E Rule not applicable to discovery

 

CLAIMS FOR RELIEF

 

18 Claims for relief

 

RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS

 

19 A Defenses; form of denials

19 B Affirmative defenses

19 C Effect of failure to deny

 

SPECIAL PLEADING RULES

 

20 A Conditions precedent

20 B Judgment or other determination of court or officer; how pleaded

20 C Private statute; how pleaded

20 D Corporate existence of city or county and of ordinances or comprehensive plans generally; how pleaded

20 E Libel or slander action

20 F Official document or act

20 G Recitals and negative pregnants

20 H Fictitious parties

20 I Designation of unknown heirs in actions relating to property

20 J Designation of unknown persons

 

DEFENSES AND OBJECTIONS; HOW PRESENTED;

BY PLEADING OR MOTION; MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

ON THE PLEADINGS

 

21 A How presented

21 B Motion for judgment on the pleadings

21 C Preliminary hearings

21 D Motion to make more definite and certain

21 E Motion to strike

21 F Consolidation of defenses in motion

21 G Waiver or preservation of certain defenses

 

COUNTERCLAIMS, CROSS-CLAIMS, AND THIRD PARTY CLAIMS

 

22 A Counterclaims

22 B Cross-claim against codefendant

22 C Third party practice

22 D Joinder of additional parties

22 E Separate trial

 

AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS

 

23 A Amendments

23 B Amendments to conform to the evidence

23 C Relation back of amendments

23 D How amendment made

23 E Supplemental pleadings

 

JOINDER OF CLAIMS

 

24 A Permissive joinder

24 B Forcible entry and detainer and rental due

24 C Separate statement

 

EFFECT OF PROCEEDING AFTER MOTION OR AMENDMENT

 

25 A Amendment or pleading over after motion; non-waiver of defenses or objections

25 B Amendment of pleading; objections to amended pleading not waived

25 C Denial of motion; non-waiver by filing responsive pleading

 

REAL PARTY IN INTEREST; CAPACITY OF PARTNERSHIPS AND ASSOCIATIONS

 

26 A Real party in interest

26 B Partnerships and associations

 

MINOR OR INCAPACITATED PARTIES

 

27 A Appearance of minor parties by guardian or conservator

27 B Appearance of incapacitated person by conservator or guardian

 

JOINDER OF PARTIES

 

28 A Permissive joinder as plaintiffs or defendants

28 B Separate trials

 

JOINDER OF PERSONS NEEDED FOR JUST ADJUDICATION

 

29 A Persons to be joined if feasible

29 B Determination by court whenever joinder not feasible

29 C Exception of class actions

 

MISJOINDER AND NONJOINDER OF PARTIES

 

30 Misjoinder and nonjoinder of parties

 

INTERPLEADER

 

31 A Parties

31 B Procedure

31 C Attorney fees

 

CLASS ACTIONS

 

32 A Requirement for class action

32 B Class action maintainable

32 C Determination by order whether class action to be maintained

32 D Dismissal or compromise of class actions; court approval required; when notice required

32 E Court authority over conduct of class actions

32 F Notice and exclusion

32 G Commencement or maintenance of class actions regarding particular issues; subclasses

32 H Notice and demand required prior to commencement of action for damages

32 I Limitation on maintenance of class actions for damages

32 J Application of sections H and I of this rule to actions for equitable relief; amendment of complaints for equitable relief to request damages permitted

32 K Coordination of pending class actions sharing common question of law or fact

32 L Form of judgment

32 M Attorney fees, costs, disbursements, and litigation expenses

32 N Statute of limitations

 

INTERVENTION

 

33 A Definition

33 B Intervention of right

33 C Permissive intervention

33 D Procedure

 

SUBSTITUTION OF PARTIES

 

34 A Nonabatement of action by death, disability, or transfer

34 B Death of a party; continued proceedings

34 C Disability of a party; continued proceedings

34 D Death of a party; surviving parties

34 E Transfer of interest

34 F Public officers; death or separation from office

34 G Procedure

35 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING DISCOVERY

 

36 A Discovery methods

36 B Scope of discovery

36 B(1) In general

36 B(2) Insurance agreements or policies

36 B(3) Trial preparation materials

36 C Court order limiting extent of disclosure

 

PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY OR EVIDENCE BEFORE

ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL

 

37 A Before action

37 A(1) Petition

37 A(2) Notice and service

37 A(3) Order and examination

37 B Pending appeal

37 C Perpetuation by action

37 D Filing of depositions

 

PERSONS WHO MAY ADMINISTER OATHS FOR DEPOSITIONS;

FOREIGN DEPOSITIONS

 

38 A Within Oregon

38 B Outside the state

38 C Foreign depositions and subpoenas

38 C(1) Definitions

38 C(2) Issuance of subpoena

38 C(3) Service of subpoena

38 C(4) Effects of request for subpoena

38 C(5) Motions

38 C(6) Uniformity of application and construction

 

DEPOSITIONS UPON ORAL EXAMINATION

 

39 A When deposition may be taken

39 B Order for deposition or production of prisoner

39 C Notice of examination

39 C(1) General requirements

39 C(2) Special notice

39 C(3) Shorter or longer time

39 C(4) Non-stenographic recording

39 C(5) Production of documents and things

39 C(6) Deposition of organization

39 C(7) Deposition by telephone

39 D Examination; record; oath; objections

39 D(1) Examination; cross-examination; oath

39 D(2) Record of examination

39 D(3) Objections

39 D(4) Written questions as alternative

39 E Motion for court assistance; expenses

39 E(1) Motion for court assistance

39 E(2) Allowance of expenses

39 F Submission to witness; changes; statement

39 F(1) Necessity of submission to witness for examination

39 F(2) Procedure after examination

39 F(3) No request for examination

39 G Certification; filing; exhibits; copies

39 G(1) Certification

39 G(2) Filing

39 G(3) Exhibits

39 G(4) Copies

39 H Payment of expenses upon failure to appear

39 H(1) Failure of party to attend

39 H(2) Failure of witness to attend

39 I Perpetuation of testimony after commencement of action

 

DEPOSITIONS UPON WRITTEN QUESTIONS

 

40 A Serving questions; notice

40 B Officer to take responses and prepare record

 

EFFECT OF ERRORS AND IRREGULARITIES IN DEPOSITIONS

 

41 A As to notice

41 B As to disqualification of officer

41 C As to taking of deposition

41 D As to completion and return of deposition

42 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS AND THINGS AND ENTRY

UPON LAND FOR INSPECTION AND OTHER PURPOSES

 

43 A Scope

43 B Procedure

43 C Writing called for need not be offered

43 D Persons not parties

43 E Electronically stored information

 

PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION

OF PERSONS; REPORTS OF EXAMINATIONS

 

44 A Order for examination

44 B Report of examining physician or psychologist

44 C Reports of examinations; claims for damages for injuries

44 D Report; effect of failure to comply

44 D(1) Preparation of written report

44 D(2) Failure to comply or make report or request report

44 E Access to individually identifiable health information

 

REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION

 

45 A Request for admission

45 B Response

45 C Motion to determine sufficiency

45 D Effect of admission

45 E Form of response

45 F Number

 

FAILURE TO MAKE DISCOVERY; SANCTIONS

 

46 A Motion for order compelling discovery

46 A(1) Appropriate court

46 A(1) (a) Parties

46 A(1) (b) Non-parties

46 A(2) Motion

46 A(3) Evasive or incomplete answer

46 A(4) Award of expenses of motion

46 B Failure to comply with order

46 B(1) Sanctions by court in the county where the deponent is located

46 B(2) Sanctions by court in which action is pending

46 B(3) Payment of expenses

46 C Expenses on failure to admit

46 D Failure of party to attend at own deposition or respond to request for inspection or to inform of question regarding the existence of coverage of liability insurance policy

 

SUMMARY JUDGMENT

 

47 A For claimant

47 B For defending party

47 C Motion and proceedings thereon

47 D Form of affidavits and declarations; defense required

47 E Affidavit or declaration of attorney when expert opinion required

47 F When affidavits or declarations are unavailable

47 G Affidavits or declarations made in bad faith

47 H Multiple parties or claims; limited judgment

48 (Reserved for Expansion)

49 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

JURY TRIAL

 

50 Jury trial of right

 

ISSUES; TRIAL BY JURY OR BY THE COURT

 

51 A Issues

51 B Issues of law; how tried

51 C Issues of fact; how tried

51 D Advisory jury and jury trial by consent

 

POSTPONEMENT OF CASES

 

52 A Postponement

52 B Absence of evidence

 

CONSOLIDATION; SEPARATE TRIALS

 

53 A Joint hearing or trial; consolidation of actions

53 B Separate trials

 

DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS; COMPROMISE

 

54 A Voluntary dismissal; effect thereof

54 A(1) By plaintiff; by stipulation

54 A(2) By order of court

54 A(3) Costs and disbursements

54 B Involuntary dismissal

54 B(1) Failure to comply with rule or order

54 B(2) Insufficiency of evidence

54 B(3) Dismissal for want of prosecution; notice

54 B(4) Effect of judgment of dismissal

54 C Dismissal of counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim

54 D Costs of previously dismissed action

54 E Offer to allow judgment; effect of acceptance or rejection

54 F Settlement conferences

 

SUBPOENA

 

55 A Defined; form

55 B For production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things and to permit inspection

55 C Issuance

55 C(1) By whom issued

55 C(2) By clerk in blank

55 D Service; service on law enforcement agency; service by mail; proof of service

55 D(1) Service

55 D(2) Service on law enforcement agency

55 D(3) Service by mail

55 D(4) Service by mail; exception

55 D(5) Proof of service

55 E Subpoena for hearing or trial; prisoners

55 F Subpoena for taking depositions or requiring production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things; place of production and examination

55 F(1) Subpoena for taking deposition

55 F(2) Place of examination

55 F(3) Production without examination or deposition

55 G Disobedience of subpoena; refusal to be sworn or answer as a witness

55 H Individually identifiable health information

55 H(1) Definitions

55 H(2) Mode of compliance

55 H(3) Affidavit or declaration of custodian of records

55 H(4) Personal attendance of custodian of records may be required

55 H(5) Tender and payment of fees

55 H(6) Scope of discovery

 

TRIAL BY JURY

 

56 Trial by jury defined

56 A Twelve-person juries

56 B Six-person juries

 

JURORS

 

57 A Challenging compliance with selection procedures

57 A(1) Motion

57 A(2) Stay of proceedings

57 A(3) Exclusive means of challenge

57 B Jury; how drawn

57 C Examination of jurors

57 D Challenges

57 D(1) Challenges for cause; grounds

57 D(2) Peremptory challenges; number

57 D(3) Conduct of peremptory challenges

57 D(4) Challenge of peremptory challenge exercised on basis of race, ethnicity, or sex

57 E Oath of jury

57 F Alternate jurors

57 F(1) Definition

57 F(2) Decision to allow alternate jurors

57 F(3) Peremptory challenges; number

57 F(4) Duties and responsibilities

57 F(5) Installation and discharge

 

TRIAL PROCEDURE

 

58 A Manner of proceedings on trial by the court

58 B Manner of proceedings on jury trial

58 C Separation of jury before submission of cause; admonition

58 D Proceedings if juror becomes sick

58 E Failure to appear for trial

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO JURY AND DELIBERATION

 

59 A Proposed instructions

59 B Charging the jury

59 C Deliberation

59 C(1) Exhibits

59 C(2) Written statement of issues

59 C(3) Copies of documents

59 C(4) Notes

59 C(5) Custody of and communications with jury

59 C(6) Separation during deliberation

59 C(7) Juror’s use of private knowledge or information

59 D Further instructions

59 E Comments on evidence

59 F Discharge of jury without verdict

59 F(1) When jury may be discharged

59 F(2) New trial when jury discharged

59 G Return of jury verdict

59 G(1) Declaration of verdict

59 G(2) Number of jurors concurring

59 G(3) Polling the jury

59 G(4) Informal or insufficient verdict

59 G(5) Completion of verdict; form and entry

59 H Necessity of noting exception on error in statement of issues or instructions given or refused

59 H(1) Statement of issues or instructions given or refused

59 H(2) Exceptions must be specific and on the record

 

MOTION FOR DIRECTED VERDICT

 

60 Motion for a directed verdict

 

VERDICTS, GENERAL AND SPECIAL

 

61 A General verdict

61 B Special verdict

61 C General verdict accompanied by answer to interrogatories

61 D Action for specific personal property

 

FINDINGS OF FACT

 

62 A Necessity

62 B Proposed findings; objections

62 C Entry of judgment

62 D Extending or lessening time

62 E Necessity

62 F Effect of findings of fact

 

JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING THE VERDICT

 

63 A Grounds

63 B Reserving ruling on directed verdict motion

63 C Alternative motion for new trial

63 D(1) Time for motion and ruling

63 D(2) Effect of notice of appeal

63 E Duties of the clerk

63 F Motion for new trial after judgment notwithstanding the verdict

 

NEW TRIALS

 

64 A New trial defined

64 B Jury trial; grounds for new trial

64 C New trial in case tried without a jury

64 D Specification of grounds of motion; when motion must be on affidavits or declarations

64 E When counteraffidavits or counterdeclarations are allowed; former proceedings considered

64 F(1) Time of motion; counteraffidavits or counterdeclarations; hearing and determination

64 F(2) Effect of notice of appeal

64 G New trial on court’s own initiative

 

REFEREES

 

65 A In general

65 A(1) Appointment

65 A(2) Compensation

65 A(3) Delinquent fees

65 B Reference

65 B(1) Reference by agreement

65 B(2) Reference without agreement

65 C Powers

65 C(1) Order of reference

65 C(2) Power under order of reference

65 C(3) Record

65 D Proceedings

65 D(1) Meetings

65 D(2) Witnesses

65 D(3) Accounts

65 E Report

65 E(1) Contents

65 E(2) Filing

65 E(3) Effect

 

SUBMITTED CONTROVERSY

 

66 A Submission without action

66 A(1) Contents of submission

66 A(2) Who must sign the submission

66 A(3) Effect of the submission

66 B Submission of pending case

66 B(1) Pleadings deemed abandoned

66 B(2) Provisional remedies

 

JUDGMENTS

 

67 A Definitions

67 B Judgment for less than all claims or parties in action

67 C Demand for judgment

67 D Judgment in action for recovery of personal property

67 E Judgment in action against partnership, unincorporated association, or parties jointly indebted

67 E(1) Partnership and unincorporated association

67 E(2) Joint obligations; effect of judgment

67 F Judgment by stipulation

67 F(1) Availability of judgment by stipulation

67 F(2) Filing; assent in open court

67 G Judgment on portion of claim exceeding counterclaim

 

ALLOWANCE AND TAXATION OF ATTORNEY FEES AND

COSTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

 

68 A Definitions

68 A(1) Attorney fees

68 A(2) Costs and disbursements

68 B Allowance of costs and disbursements

68 C Award of and entry of judgment for attorney fees and costs and disbursements

68 C(1) Application of this section to award of attorney fees

68 C(2) Alleging right to attorney fees

68 C(3) Proof

68 C(4) Procedure for seeking attorney fees or costs and disbursements

68 C(4) (a) Filing and serving statement of attorney fees and costs and disbursements

68 C(4) (b) Objections

68 C(4) (c) Response to objections

68 C(4) (d) Amendments

68 C(4) (e) Hearing on objections

68 C(4) (f) No timely objections

68 C(4) (g) Findings and conclusions

68 C(5) Judgment concerning attorney fees or costs and disbursements

68 C(5) (a) As part of judgment

68 C(5) (b) By supplemental judgment; notice

68 C(6) Avoidance of multiple collection of attorney fees and costs and disbursements

68 C(6) (a) Separate judgments for separate claims

68 C(6) (b) Separate judgments for the same claim

 

DEFAULT ORDERS AND JUDGMENTS

 

69 A In general

69 B Intent to appear; notice of intent to apply for an order of default

69 C Motion for order of default

69 D Motion for judgment by default

69 E Certain motor vehicle cases

69 F Setting aside an order of default or judgment by default

 

RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT OR ORDER

 

71 A Clerical mistakes

71 B Mistakes; inadvertence; excusable neglect; newly discovered evidence, etc.

71 B(1) By motion

71 B(2) When appeal pending

71 C Relief from judgment by other means

71 D Writs and bills abolished

 

STAY OF PROCEEDINGS TO ENFORCE JUDGMENT

 

72 A Immediate execution; discretionary stay

72 B Other stays

72 C Stay or injunction in favor of public body

72 D Stay of judgment as to multiple claims or multiple parties

 

JUDGMENTS BY CONFESSION

 

73 A Judgments which may be confessed

73 A(1) For money due; where allowed

73 A(2) Consumer transactions

73 B Statement by defendant

73 C Application by plaintiff

73 D Confession by joint debtors

74 (Reserved for Expansion)

75 (Reserved for Expansion)

76 (Reserved for Expansion)

77 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

ORDER OR JUDGMENT FOR SPECIFIC ACTS

 

78 A Judgment requiring performance considered equivalent thereto

78 B Enforcement; contempt

78 C Application

 

TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDERS AND PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS

 

79 A Availability generally

79 A(1) Circumstances

79 A(2) Time

79 B Temporary restraining order

79 B(1) Notice

79 B(2) Contents of order; duration

79 B(3) Hearing on preliminary injunction

79 B(4) Adverse party’s motion to dissolve or modify

79 B(5) Temporary restraining orders not extended by implication

79 C Preliminary injunction

79 C(1) Notice

79 C(2) Consolidation of hearing with trial on merits

79 D Form and scope of injunction or restraining order

79 E Scope of rule

79 F Writ abolished

 

RECEIVERS

 

80 A Receiver defined

80 B When appointment of receiver authorized

80 B(1) Provisionally to protect property

80 B(2) To effectuate judgment

80 B(3) To dispose of property, to preserve during appeal or when execution unsatisfied

80 B(4) Creditor’s action

80 B(5) Attaching creditor

80 B(6) Protect, preserve, or restrain property subject to execution

80 B(7) Corporations and associations; when provided by statute

80 B(8) Corporations and associations; to protect property or interest of stockholders or creditors

80 C Appointment of receivers; notice

80 D Form of order appointing receivers

80 E Notice to persons interested in receivership

80 F Special notices

80 F(1) Required notice

80 F(2) Request for special notice

80 F(3) Form and service of notices

80 G Termination of receiverships

 

DEFINITIONS; SERVICE; ADVERSE CLAIMANTS

 

81 A Definitions

81 A(1) Attachment

81 A(2) Bank

81 A(3) Clerk

81 A(4) Consumer goods

81 A(5) Consumer transaction

81 A(6) Issuing officer

81 A(7) Levy

81 A(8) Plaintiff and defendant

81 A(9) Provisional process

81 A(10) Security interest

81 A(11) Sheriff

81 A(12) Writ

81 B Service of notices or orders; proof of service

81 B(1) Service

81 B(2) Proof of service

81 C Adverse claimants

81 C(1) Summary release of attachment

81 C(2) Continuation of attachment

 

SECURITY; BONDS AND UNDERTAKINGS; JUSTIFICATION OF SURETIES

 

82 A Security required

82 A(1) Restraining orders; preliminary injunctions

82 A(2) Receivers

82 A(3) Attachment or claim and delivery

82 A(4) Other provisional process

82 A(5) Form of security or bond

82 A(6) Modification of security requirements by court

82 B Security; proceedings against sureties

82 C Approval by clerk

82 D Qualifications of sureties

82 D(1) Individuals

82 D(2) Corporations

82 E Affidavits or declarations of sureties

82 E(1) Individuals

82 E(2) Corporations

82 E(3) Service

82 F Objections to sureties

82 G Hearing on objections to sureties

82 G(1) Request for hearing

82 G(2) Information to be furnished

82 G(3) Surety insurers

 

PROVISIONAL PROCESS

 

83 A Requirements for issuance

83 B Provisional process prohibited in certain consumer transactions

83 C Evidence admissible; choice of remedies available to court

83 D Issuance of provisional process where damage to property threatened

83 E Restraining order to protect property

83 F Appearance; hearing; service of show cause order; content; effect of service on person in possession of property

83 G Waiver; order without hearing

83 H Authority of court on sustaining validity of underlying claim; provisional process; restraining order

 

ATTACHMENT

 

84 A Actions in which attachment allowed

84 A(1) Order for provisional process

84 A(2) Actions in which attachment allowed

84 A(3) Exception for financial institution

84 B Property that may be attached

84 C Attachment by claim of lien

84 C(1) Property subject to claim of lien

84 C(2) Form of claim; filing

84 C(2) (a) Form

84 C(2) (b) Filing

84 D Writ of attachment

84 D(1) Issuance; contents; to whom directed; issuance of several writs

84 D(2) Manner of executing writ

84 D(2) (a) Personal property not in possession of third party

84 D(2) (b) Other personal property

84 D(3) Notice to defendant

84 D(4) Return of writ; inventory

84 D(5) Indemnity to sheriff

84 E Disposition of attached property after judgment

84 E(1) Judgment for plaintiff

84 E(2) Judgment not for plaintiff

84 F Redelivery of attached property

84 F(1) Order and bond

84 F(2) Defense of surety

 

CLAIM AND DELIVERY

 

85 A Claim and delivery

85 B Delivery by sheriff under provisional process order

85 C Custody and delivery of property

85 D Filing of order by sheriff

85 E Dismissal prohibited

 

Note: The Oregon Rules of Civil Procedure set forth below are printed and published in Oregon Revised Statutes pursuant to ORS 1.750.

Rules 1 through 64 were promulgated originally on December 2, 1978, and submitted to the Legislative Assembly at its 1979 Regular Session by the Council on Court Procedures pursuant to ORS 1.735. Rules 65 through 85, and amendments of previously adopted rules, were promulgated originally on December 13, 1980, and submitted to the Legislative Assembly at its 1981 Regular Session by the Council. Some of the rules have been amended by the Legislative Assembly.

The source of each rule is indicated in a bracketed notation following the text of the rule. For example:

[CCP 12/2/78] indicates the rule was promulgated by the Council on Court Procedures on December 2, 1978.

[CCP 12/13/80] indicates the rule was promulgated by the Council on December 13, 1980.

[CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/13/80] indicates the rule was promulgated by the Council on December 2, 1978, and amended by the Council by promulgation on December 13, 1980.

[CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §7; §D amended by 1981 c.898 §3] indicates that the rule was amended by section 7, chapter 284, Oregon Laws 1979, and that section D of the rule was amended by section 3, chapter 898, Oregon Laws 1981.

[CCP 12/2/78; §K amended by 1979 c.284 §8; §M amended by CCP 12/13/80] indicates that section K of the rule was amended by section 8, chapter 284, Oregon Laws 1979, and that section M of the rule was amended by the Council on December 13, 1980.

[CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/13/80; 1981 c.912 §1]

indicates that the rule was amended by the Council on December 13, 1980, and by section 1, chapter 912, Oregon Laws 1981.

[CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §9; §D amended by CCP 12/13/80; §D amended by 1981 c.898 §4] indicates that the rule was amended by section 9, chapter 284, Oregon Laws 1979, that section D of the rule was amended by the Council on December 13, 1980, and that section D of the rule was amended by section 4, chapter 898, Oregon Laws 1981.

[CCP 12/2/78; §§E,F,G adopted by CCP 12/13/80; §F deleted and §G redesignated by CCP 12/14/96] indicates that the rule was promulgated by the Council on December 2, 1978, and that sections E, F and G of the rule were adopted by the Council by promulgation on December 13, 1980, and that section F was deleted and that section G was redesignated by the Council by promulgation on December 14, 1996.

 

SCOPE; CONSTRUCTION; APPLICATION; RULE; CITATION

RULE 1

 

A Scope. These rules govern procedure and practice in all circuit courts of this state, except in the small claims department of circuit courts, for all civil actions and special proceedings whether cognizable as cases at law, in equity, or of statutory origin except where a different procedure is specified by statute or rule. These rules shall also govern practice and procedure in all civil actions and special proceedings, whether cognizable as cases at law, in equity, or of statutory origin, for the small claims department of circuit courts and for all other courts of this state to the extent they are made applicable to such courts by rule or statute. Reference in these rules to actions shall include all civil actions and special proceedings whether cognizable as cases at law, in equity or of statutory origin.

 

B Construction. These rules shall be construed to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action.

 

C Application. These rules, and amendments thereto, shall apply to all actions pending at the time of or filed after their effective date, except to the extent that in the opinion of the court their application in a particular action pending when the rules take effect would not be feasible or would work injustice, in which event the former procedure applies.

 

D “Rule” defined and local rules. References to “these rules” shall include Oregon Rules of Civil Procedure numbered 1 through 85. General references to “rule” or “rules” shall mean only rule or rules of pleading, practice, and procedure established by ORS 1.745, or promulgated under ORS 1.006, 1.735, 2.130, and 305.425, unless otherwise defined or limited. These rules do not preclude a court in which they apply from regulating pleading, practice, and procedure in any manner not inconsistent with these rules.

 

E Use of declaration under penalty of perjury in lieu of affidavit; “declaration” defined. A declaration under penalty of perjury, or an unsworn declaration under ORS 194.800 to 194.835, if the declarant is physically outside the boundaries of the United States, may be used in lieu of any affidavit required or allowed by these rules. A declaration under penalty of perjury may be made without notice to adverse parties, must be signed by the declarant, and must include the following sentence in prominent letters immediately above the signature of the declarant: “I hereby declare that the above statement is true to the best of my knowledge and belief, and that I understand it is made for use as evidence in court and is subject to penalty for perjury.” As used in these rules, “declaration” means a declaration under penalty of perjury.

 

F Electronic filing. Any reference in these rules to any document, except a summons, which is exchanged, served, entered, or filed during the course of civil litigation shall be construed to include electronic images or other digital information in addition to printed versions of such items, as may be permitted by rules of the court in which the action is pending.

 

G Citation. These rules may be referred to as ORCP and may be cited, for example, by citation of Rule 7, section D, subsection (3), paragraph (a), subparagraph (iv), part (A), as ORCP 7 D(3)(a)(iv)(A). [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §7; §D amended by 1981 c.898 §3; §D amended by 1981 s.s. c.1 §21; §E amended by CCP 12/13/86; §A amended by 1995 c.658 §117; amended by 2003 c.194 §1; §F adopted and former §F redesignated as §G and §§D,E,G amended by CCP 12/13/08; §E amended by 2013 c.218 §9]

 

FORM OF ACTION

RULE 2

 

One form of action. There shall be one form of action known as a civil action. All procedural distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity are hereby abolished, except for those distinctions specifically provided for by these rules, by statute, or by the Constitution of this state. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

COMMENCEMENT

RULE 3

 

Commencement of action. Other than for purposes of statutes of limitations, an action shall be commenced by filing a complaint with the clerk of the court. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

JURISDICTION

(Personal)

RULE 4

 

Personal jurisdiction. A court of this state having jurisdiction of the subject matter has jurisdiction over a party served in an action pursuant to Rule 7 under any of the following circumstances:

 

A Local presence or status. In any action, whether arising within or without this state, against a defendant who when the action is commenced:

A(1) Is a natural person present within this state when served; or

A(2) Is a natural person domiciled within this state; or

A(3) Is a corporation created by or under the laws of this state; or

A(4) Is engaged in substantial and not isolated activities within this state, whether such activities are wholly interstate, intrastate, or otherwise; or

A(5) Has expressly consented to the exercise of personal jurisdiction over such defendant.

 

B Special jurisdiction statutes. In any action which may be brought under statutes or rules of this state that specifically confer grounds for personal jurisdiction over the defendant.

 

C Local act or omission. In any action claiming injury to person or property within or without this state arising out of an act or omission within this state by the defendant.

 

D Local injury; foreign act. In any action claiming injury to person or property within this state arising out of an act or omission outside this state by the defendant, provided in addition that at the time of the injury, either:

D(1) Solicitation or service activities were carried on within this state by or on behalf of the defendant; or

D(2) Products, materials, or things distributed, processed, serviced, or manufactured by the defendant were used or consumed within this state in the ordinary course of trade.

 

E Local services, goods, or contracts. In any action or proceeding which:

E(1) Arises out of a promise, made anywhere to the plaintiff or to some third party for the plaintiff’s benefit, by the defendant to perform services within this state or to pay for services to be performed in this state by the plaintiff; or

E(2) Arises out of services actually performed for the plaintiff by the defendant within this state or services actually performed for the defendant by the plaintiff within this state, if such performance within this state was authorized or ratified by the defendant; or

E(3) Arises out of a promise, made anywhere to the plaintiff or to some third party for the plaintiff’s benefit, by the defendant to deliver or receive within this state or to send from this state goods, documents of title, or other things of value; or

E(4) Relates to goods, documents of title, or other things of value sent from this state by the defendant to the plaintiff or to a third person on the plaintiff’s order or direction; or

E(5) Relates to goods, documents of title, or other things of value actually received in this state by the plaintiff from the defendant or by the defendant from the plaintiff, without regard to where delivery to carrier occurred.

 

F Local property. In any action which arises out of the ownership, use, or possession of real property situated in this state or the ownership, use, or possession of other tangible property, assets, or things of value which were within this state at the time of such ownership, use, or possession; including, but not limited to, actions to recover a deficiency judgment upon any mortgage, conditional sale contract, or other security agreement relating to such property, executed by the defendant or predecessor to whose obligation the defendant has succeeded.

 

G Director or officer of a domestic corporation. In any action against a defendant who is or was an officer or director of a domestic corporation where the action arises out of the defendant’s conduct as such officer or director or out of the activities of such corporation while the defendant held office as a director or officer.

 

H Taxes or assessments. In any action for the collection of taxes or assessments levied, assessed, or otherwise imposed by a taxing authority of this state.

 

I Insurance or insurers. In any action which arises out of a promise made anywhere to the plaintiff or some third party by the defendant to insure any person, property, or risk and in addition either:

I(1) The person, property, or risk insured was located in this state at the time of the promise; or

I(2) The person, property, or risk insured was located within this state when the event out of which the cause of action is claimed to arise occurred; or

I(3) The event out of which the cause of action is claimed to arise occurred within this state, regardless of where the person, property, or risk insured was located.

 

J Securities. In any action arising under the Oregon Securities Law, including an action brought by the Director of the Department of Consumer and Business Services, against:

J(1) An applicant for registration or registrant, and any person who offers or sells a security in this state, directly or indirectly, unless the security or the sale is exempt from ORS 59.055; or

J(2) Any person, a resident or nonresident of this state, who has engaged in conduct prohibited or made actionable under the Oregon Securities Law.

 

K Certain marital and domestic relations actions.

K(1) In any action to determine a question of status instituted under ORS chapter 106 or 107 when the plaintiff is a resident of or domiciled in this state.

K(2) In any action to enforce personal obligations arising under ORS chapter 106 or 107, if the parties to a marriage have concurrently maintained the same or separate residences or domiciles within this state for a period of six months, notwithstanding departure from this state and acquisition of a residence or domicile in another state or country before filing of such action; but if an action to enforce personal obligations arising under ORS chapter 106 or 107 is not commenced within one year following the date upon which the party who left the state acquired a residence or domicile in another state or country, no jurisdiction is conferred by this subsection in any such action.

K(3) In any proceeding to establish paternity under ORS chapter 109 or 110, or any action for declaration of paternity where the primary purpose of the action is to establish responsibility for child support, when the act of sexual intercourse which resulted in the birth of the child is alleged to have taken place in this state.

 

L Other actions. Notwithstanding a failure to satisfy the requirement of sections B through K of this rule, in any action where prosecution of the action against a defendant in this state is not inconsistent with the Constitution of this state or the Constitution of the United States.

 

M Personal representative. In any action against a personal representative to enforce a claim against the deceased person represented where one or more of the grounds stated in sections A through L would have furnished a basis for jurisdiction over the deceased had the deceased been living. It is immaterial whether the action is commenced during the lifetime of the deceased.

 

N Joinder of claims in the same action. In any action brought in reliance upon jurisdictional grounds stated in sections B through L, there cannot be joined in the same action any other claim or cause against the defendant unless grounds exist under this rule, or other rule or statute, for personal jurisdiction over the defendant as to the claim or cause to be joined.

 

O Defendant defined. For purposes of this rule and Rules 5 and 6, “defendant” includes any party subject to the jurisdiction of the court. [CCP 12/2/78; §K amended by 1979 c.284 §8; §M amended by CCP 12/13/80; §E amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §K amended by 1993 c.33 §364; §J amended by 1995 c.79 §401; §K amended by 1995 c.608 §40; §K amended by 2003 c.14 §13]

 

(In Rem)

RULE 5

 

Jurisdiction in rem. A court of this state having jurisdiction of the subject matter may exercise jurisdiction in rem on the grounds stated in this section. A judgment in rem may affect the interests of a defendant in the status, property, or thing acted upon only if a summons has been served upon the defendant pursuant to Rule 7 or other applicable rule or statute. Jurisdiction in rem may be invoked in any of the following cases:

A When the subject of the action is real or personal property in this state and the defendant has or claims a lien or interest, actual or contingent, therein, or the relief demanded consists wholly or partially in excluding the defendant from any interest or lien therein. This section also shall apply when any such defendant is unknown.

B When the action is to foreclose, redeem from, or satisfy a mortgage, claim, or lien upon real property within this state. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

(Without Service)

RULE 6

 

Personal jurisdiction without service of summons. A court of this state having jurisdiction of the subject matter may, without a summons having been served upon a party, exercise jurisdiction in an action over a party with respect to any counterclaim asserted against that party in an action which the party has commenced in this state and also over any party who appears in the action and waives the defense of lack of jurisdiction over the person, insufficiency of summons or process, or insufficiency of service of summons or process, as provided in Rule 21 G. Where jurisdiction is exercised under Rule 5, a defendant may appear in an action and defend on the merits, without being subject to personal jurisdiction by virtue of this rule. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

SUMMONS

RULE 7

 

A Definitions. For purposes of this rule, “plaintiff” shall include any party issuing summons and “defendant” shall include any party upon whom service of summons is sought. For purposes of this rule, a “true copy” of a summons and complaint means an exact and complete copy of the original summons and complaint.

 

B Issuance. Any time after the action is commenced, plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney may issue as many original summonses as either may elect and deliver such summonses to a person authorized to serve summonses under section E of this rule. A summons is issued when subscribed by plaintiff or an active member of the Oregon State Bar.

 

C(1) Contents. The summons shall contain:

C(1)(a) Title. The title of the cause, specifying the name of the court in which the complaint is filed and the names of the parties to the action.

C(1)(b) Direction to defendant. A direction to the defendant requiring defendant to appear and defend within the time required by subsection (2) of this section and a notification to defendant that in case of failure to do so, the plaintiff will apply to the court for the relief demanded in the complaint.

C(1)(c) Subscription; post office address. A subscription by the plaintiff or by an active member of the Oregon State Bar, with the addition of the post office address at which papers in the action may be served by mail.

C(2) Time for response. If the summons is served by any manner other than publication, the defendant shall appear and defend within 30 days from the date of service. If the summons is served by publication pursuant to subsection D(6) of this rule, the defendant shall appear and defend within 30 days from the date stated in the summons. The date so stated in the summons shall be the date of the first publication.

C(3) Notice to party served.

C(3)(a) In general. All summonses, other than a summons referred to in paragraph (b) or (c) of this subsection, shall contain a notice printed in type size equal to at least 8-point type which may be substantially in the following form:

______________________________________________________________________________

 

NOTICE TO DEFENDANT:

READ THESE PAPERS CAREFULLY!

 

You must “appear” in this case or the other side will win automatically. To “appear” you must file with the court a legal document called a “motion” or “answer.” The “motion” or “answer” must be given to the court clerk or administrator within 30 days along with the required filing fee. It must be in proper form and have proof of service on the plaintiff’s attorney or, if the plaintiff does not have an attorney, proof of service on the plaintiff.

If you have questions, you should see an attorney immediately. If you need help in finding an attorney, you may contact the Oregon State Bar’s Lawyer Referral Service online at www.oregonstatebar.org or by calling (503) 684-3763 (in the Portland metropolitan area) or toll-free elsewhere in Oregon at (800) 452-7636.

______________________________________________________________________________

C(3)(b) Service for counterclaim. A summons to join a party to respond to a counterclaim pursuant to Rule 22 D (1) shall contain a notice printed in type size equal to at least 8-point type which may be substantially in the following form:

______________________________________________________________________________

NOTICE TO DEFENDANT:

READ THESE PAPERS CAREFULLY!

 

You must “appear” to protect your rights in this matter. To “appear” you must file with the court a legal document called a “motion” or “reply.” The “motion” or “reply” must be given to the court clerk or administrator within 30 days along with the required filing fee. It must be in proper form and have proof of service on the defendant’s attorney or, if the defendant does not have an attorney, proof of service on the defendant.

If you have questions, you should see an attorney immediately. If you need help in finding an attorney, you may contact the Oregon State Bar’s Lawyer Referral Service online at www.oregonstatebar.org or by calling (503) 684-3763 (in the Portland metropolitan area) or toll-free elsewhere in Oregon at (800) 452-7636.

______________________________________________________________________________

C(3)(c) Service on persons liable for attorney fees. A summons to join a party pursuant to Rule 22 D(2) shall contain a notice printed in type size equal to at least 8-point type which may be substantially in the following form:

______________________________________________________________________________

NOTICE TO DEFENDANT:

READ THESE PAPERS CAREFULLY!

 

You may be liable for attorney fees in this case. Should plaintiff in this case not prevail, a judgment for reasonable attorney fees will be entered against you, as provided by the agreement to which defendant alleges you are a party.

You must “appear” to protect your rights in this matter. To “appear” you must file with the court a legal document called a “motion” or “reply.” The “motion” or “reply” must be given to the court clerk or administrator within 30 days along with the required filing fee. It must be in proper form and have proof of service on the defendant’s attorney or, if the defendant does not have an attorney, proof of service on the defendant.

If you have questions, you should see an attorney immediately. If you need help in finding an attorney, you may contact the Oregon State Bar’s Lawyer Referral Service online at www.oregonstatebar.org or by calling (503) 684-3763 (in the Portland metropolitan area) or toll-free elsewhere in Oregon at (800) 452-7636.

______________________________________________________________________________

 

D Manner of service.

D(1) Notice required. Summons shall be served, either within or without this state, in any manner reasonably calculated, under all the circumstances, to apprise the defendant of the existence and pendency of the action and to afford a reasonable opportunity to appear and defend. Summons may be served in a manner specified in this rule or by any other rule or statute on the defendant or upon an agent authorized by appointment or law to accept service of summons for the defendant. Service may be made, subject to the restrictions and requirements of this rule, by the following methods: personal service of true copies of the summons and the complaint upon defendant or an agent of defendant authorized to receive process; substituted service by leaving true copies of the summons and the complaint at a person’s dwelling house or usual place of abode; office service by leaving true copies of the summons and the complaint with a person who is apparently in charge of an office; service by mail; or, service by publication.

D(2) Service methods.

D(2)(a) Personal service. Personal service may be made by delivery of a true copy of the summons and a true copy of the complaint to the person to be served.

D(2)(b) Substituted service. Substituted service may be made by delivering true copies of the summons and the complaint at the dwelling house or usual place of abode of the person to be served, to any person 14 years of age or older residing in the dwelling house or usual place of abode of the person to be served. Where substituted service is used, the plaintiff, as soon as reasonably possible, shall cause to be mailed, by first class mail, true copies of the summons and the complaint to the defendant at defendant’s dwelling house or usual place of abode, together with a statement of the date, time, and place at which substituted service was made. For the purpose of computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules or by statute, substituted service shall be complete upon such mailing.

D(2)(c) Office service. If the person to be served maintains an office for the conduct of business, office service may be made by leaving true copies of the summons and the complaint at such office during normal working hours with the person who is apparently in charge. Where office service is used, the plaintiff, as soon as reasonably possible, shall cause to be mailed, by first class mail, true copies of the summons and the complaint to the defendant at defendant’s dwelling house or usual place of abode or defendant’s place of business or such other place under the circumstances that is most reasonably calculated to apprise the defendant of the existence and pendency of the action, together with a statement of the date, time, and place at which office service was made. For the purpose of computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules or by statute, office service shall be complete upon such mailing.

D(2)(d) Service by mail.

D(2)(d)(i) Generally. When required or allowed by this rule or by statute, except as otherwise permitted, service by mail shall be made by mailing true copies of the summons and the complaint to the defendant by first class mail and by any of the following: certified, registered, or express mail with return receipt requested. For purposes of this section, “first class mail” does not include certified, registered, or express mail, return receipt requested, or any other form of mail which may delay or hinder actual delivery of mail to the addressee.

D(2)(d)(ii) Calculation of time. For the purpose of computing any period of time provided by these rules or by statute, service by mail, except as otherwise provided, shall be complete on the day the defendant, or other person authorized by appointment or law, signs a receipt for the mailing, or three days after the mailing if mailed to an address within the state, or seven days after the mailing if mailed to an address outside the state, whichever first occurs.

D(3) Particular defendants. Service may be made upon specified defendants as follows:

D(3)(a) Individuals.

D(3)(a)(i) Generally. Upon an individual defendant, by personal delivery of true copies of the summons and the complaint to such defendant or other person authorized by appointment or law to receive service of summons on behalf of such defendant, by substituted service, or by office service. Service may also be made upon an individual defendant to whom neither subparagraph (ii) nor (iii) of this paragraph applies by a mailing made in accordance with paragraph (2)(d) of this section provided the defendant signs a receipt for the certified, registered, or express mailing, in which case service shall be complete on the date on which the defendant signs a receipt for the mailing.

D(3)(a)(ii) Minors. Upon a minor under the age of 14 years, by service in the manner specified in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph upon such minor and, also, upon such minor’s father, mother, conservator of the minor’s estate, or guardian, or, if there be none, then upon any person having the care or control of the minor, or with whom such minor resides, or in whose service such minor is employed, or upon a guardian ad litem appointed pursuant to Rule 27 A(2).

D(3)(a)(iii) Incapacitated persons. Upon a person who is incapacitated or financially incapable, as defined by ORS 125.005, by service in the manner specified in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph upon such person and, also, upon the conservator of such person’s estate or guardian, or, if there be none, upon a guardian ad litem appointed pursuant to Rule 27 B(2).

D(3)(a)(iv) Tenant of a mail agent. Upon an individual defendant who is a “tenant” of a “mail agent” within the meaning of ORS 646A.340 by delivering true copies of the summons and the complaint to any person apparently in charge of the place where the mail agent receives mail for the tenant, provided that:

(A) the plaintiff makes a diligent inquiry but cannot find the defendant; and

(B) the plaintiff, as soon as reasonably possible after delivery, causes true copies of the summons and the complaint to be mailed by first class mail to the defendant at the address at which the mail agent receives mail for the defendant and to any other mailing address of the defendant then known to the plaintiff, together with a statement of the date, time, and place at which the plaintiff delivered the copies of the summons and the complaint.

Service shall be complete on the latest date resulting from the application of subparagraph D(2)(d)(ii) of this rule to all mailings required by this subparagraph unless the defendant signs a receipt for the mailing, in which case service is complete on the day the defendant signs the receipt.

D(3)(b) Corporations including, but not limited to, professional corporations and cooperatives. Upon a domestic or foreign corporation:

D(3)(b)(i) Primary service method. By personal service or office service upon a registered agent, officer, or director of the corporation; or by personal service upon any clerk on duty in the office of a registered agent.

D(3)(b)(ii) Alternatives. If a registered agent, officer, or director cannot be found in the county where the action is filed, true copies of the summons and the complaint may be served:

(A) by substituted service upon such registered agent, officer, or director;

(B) by personal service on any clerk or agent of the corporation who may be found in the county where the action is filed;

(C) by mailing in the manner specified in paragraph (2)(d) of this section true copies of the summons and the complaint to the office of the registered agent or to the last registered office of the corporation, if any, as shown by the records on file in the office of the Secretary of State; or, if the corporation is not authorized to transact business in this state at the time of the transaction, event, or occurrence upon which the action is based occurred, to the principal office or place of business of the corporation, and in any case to any address the use of which the plaintiff knows or has reason to believe is most likely to result in actual notice; or

(D) upon the Secretary of State in the manner provided in ORS 60.121 or 60.731.

D(3)(c) Limited liability companies. Upon a limited liability company:

D(3)(c)(i) Primary service method. By personal service or office service upon a registered agent, manager, or (for a member-managed limited liability company) member of a limited liability company; or by personal service upon any clerk on duty in the office of a registered agent.

D(3)(c)(ii) Alternatives. If a registered agent, manager, or (for a member-managed limited liability company) member of a limited liability company cannot be found in the county where the action is filed, true copies of the summons and the complaint may be served:

(A) by substituted service upon such registered agent, manager, or (for a member-managed limited liability company) member of a limited liability company;

(B) by personal service on any clerk or agent of the limited liability company who may be found in the county where the action is filed;

(C) by mailing in the manner specified in paragraph (2)(d) of this section true copies of the summons and the complaint to the office of the registered agent or to the last registered office of the limited liability company, as shown by the records on file in the office of the Secretary of State or, if the limited liability company is not authorized to transact business in this state at the time of the transaction, event, or occurrence upon which the action is based occurred, to the principal office or place of business of the limited liability company, and in any case to any address the use of which the plaintiff knows or has reason to believe is most likely to result in actual notice; or

(D) upon the Secretary of State in the manner provided in ORS 63.121.

D(3)(d) Limited partnerships. Upon a domestic or foreign limited partnership:

D(3)(d)(i) Primary service method. By personal service or office service upon a registered agent or a general partner of a limited partnership; or by personal service upon any clerk on duty in the office of a registered agent.

D(3)(d)(ii) Alternatives. If a registered agent or a general partner of a limited partnership cannot be found in the county where the action is filed, true copies of the summons and the complaint may be served:

(A) by substituted service upon such registered agent or general partner of a limited partnership;

(B) by personal service on any clerk or agent of the limited partnership who may be found in the county where the action is filed;

(C) by mailing in the manner specified in paragraph (2)(d) of this section true copies of the summons and the complaint to the office of the registered agent or to the last registered office of the limited partnership, as shown by the records on file in the office of the Secretary of State or, if the limited partnership is not authorized to transact business in this state at the time of the transaction, event, or occurrence upon which the action is based occurred, to the principal office or place of business of the limited partnership, and in any case to any address the use of which the plaintiff knows or has reason to believe is most likely to result in actual notice; or

(D) upon the Secretary of State in the manner provided in ORS 70.040 or 70.045.

D(3)(e) General partnerships and limited liability partnerships. Upon any general partnership or limited liability partnership by personal service upon a partner or any agent authorized by appointment or law to receive service of summons for the partnership or limited liability partnership.

D(3)(f) Other unincorporated association subject to suit under a common name. Upon any other unincorporated association subject to suit under a common name by personal service upon an officer, managing agent, or agent authorized by appointment or law to receive service of summons for the unincorporated association.

D(3)(g) State. Upon the state, by personal service upon the Attorney General or by leaving true copies of the summons and the complaint at the Attorney General’s office with a deputy, assistant, or clerk.

D(3)(h) Public bodies. Upon any county; incorporated city; school district; or other public corporation, commission, board, or agency by personal service or office service upon an officer, director, managing agent, or attorney thereof.

D(3)(i) Vessel owners and charterers. Upon any foreign steamship owner or steamship charterer by personal service upon a vessel master in such owner’s or charterer’s employment or any agent authorized by such owner or charterer to provide services to a vessel calling at a port in the State of Oregon, or a port in the State of Washington on that portion of the Columbia River forming a common boundary with Oregon.

D(4) Particular actions involving motor vehicles.

D(4)(a) Actions arising out of use of roads, highways, streets, or premises open to the public; service by mail.

D(4)(a)(i) In any action arising out of any accident, collision, or other event giving rise to liability in which a motor vehicle may be involved while being operated upon the roads, highways, streets, or premises open to the public as defined by law of this state if the plaintiff makes at least one attempt to serve a defendant who operated such motor vehicle, or caused it to be operated on the defendant’s behalf, by a method authorized by subsection (3) of this section except service by mail pursuant to subparagraph (3)(a)(i) of this section and, as shown by its return, did not effect service, the plaintiff may then serve that defendant by mailings made in accordance with paragraph (2)(d) of this section addressed to that defendant at:

(A) any residence address provided by that defendant at the scene of the accident;

(B) the current residence address, if any, of that defendant shown in the driver records of the Department of Transportation; and

(C) any other address of that defendant known to the plaintiff at the time of making the mailings required by (A) and (B) that reasonably might result in actual notice to that defendant.

Sufficient service pursuant to this subparagraph may be shown if the proof of service includes a true copy of the envelope in which each of the certified, registered, or express mailings required by (A), (B), and (C) above was made showing that it was returned to sender as undeliverable or that the defendant did not sign the receipt. For the purpose of computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules or by statute, service under this subparagraph shall be complete on the latest date on which any of the mailings required by (A), (B), and (C) above is made. If the mailing required by (C) is omitted because the plaintiff did not know of any address other than those specified in (A) and (B) above, the proof of service shall so certify.

D(4)(a)(ii) Any fee charged by the Department of Transportation for providing address information concerning a party served pursuant to subparagraph (i) of this paragraph may be recovered as provided in Rule 68.

D(4)(a)(iii) The requirements for obtaining an order of default against a defendant served pursuant to subparagraph (i) of this paragraph are as provided in Rule 69.

D(4)(b) Notification of change of address. Any person who; while operating a motor vehicle upon the roads, highways, streets, or premises open to the public as defined by law of this state; is involved in any accident, collision, or other event giving rise to liability shall forthwith notify the Department of Transportation of any change of such defendant’s address occurring within three years after such accident, collision, or event.

D(5) Service in foreign country. When service is to be effected upon a party in a foreign country, it is also sufficient if service of true copies of the summons and the complaint is made in the manner prescribed by the law of the foreign country for service in that country in its courts of general jurisdiction, or as directed by the foreign authority in response to letters rogatory, or as directed by order of the court. However, in all cases such service shall be reasonably calculated to give actual notice.

D(6) Court order for service; service by publication.

D(6)(a) Court order for service by other method. On motion upon a showing by affidavit or declaration that service cannot be made by any method otherwise specified in these rules or other rule or statute, the court, at its discretion, may order service by any method or combination of methods which under the circumstances is most reasonably calculated to apprise the defendant of the existence and pendency of the action, including but not limited to: publication of summons; mailing without publication to a specified post office address of the defendant by first class mail and any of the following: certified, registered, or express mail, return receipt requested; or posting at specified locations. If service is ordered by any manner other than publication, the court may order a time for response.

D(6)(b) Contents of published summons. In addition to the contents of a summons as described in section C of this rule, a published summons shall also contain a summary statement of the object of the complaint and the demand for relief, and the notice required in subsection C(3) shall state: “The ‘motion’ or ‘answer’ (or ‘reply’) must be given to the court clerk or administrator within 30 days of the date of first publication specified herein along with the required filing fee.” The published summons shall also contain the date of the first publication of the summons.

D(6)(c) Where published. An order for publication shall direct publication to be made in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the action is commenced or, if there is no such newspaper, then in a newspaper to be designated as most likely to give notice to the person to be served. Such publication shall be four times in successive calendar weeks. If the plaintiff knows of a specific location other than the county where the action is commenced where publication might reasonably result in actual notice to the defendant, the plaintiff shall so state in the affidavit or declaration required by paragraph (a) of this subsection, and the court may order publication in a comparable manner at such location in addition to, or in lieu of, publication in the county where the action is commenced.

D(6)(d) Mailing summons and complaint. If the court orders service by publication and the plaintiff knows or with reasonable diligence can ascertain the defendant’s current address, the plaintiff shall mail true copies of the summons and the complaint to the defendant at such address by first class mail and any of the following: certified, registered, or express mail, return receipt requested. If the plaintiff does not know and cannot upon diligent inquiry ascertain the current address of any defendant, true copies of the summons and the complaint shall be mailed by the methods specified above to the defendant at the defendant’s last known address. If the plaintiff does not know, and cannot ascertain upon diligent inquiry, the defendant’s current and last known addresses, a mailing of copies of the summons and the complaint is not required.

D(6)(e) Unknown heirs or persons. If service cannot be made by another method described in this section because defendants are unknown heirs or persons as described in sections I and J of Rule 20, the action shall proceed against the unknown heirs or persons in the same manner as against named defendants served by publication and with like effect; and any such unknown heirs or persons who have or claim any right, estate, lien, or interest in the property in controversy, at the time of the commencement of the action, and served by publication, shall be bound and concluded by the judgment in the action, if the same is in favor of the plaintiff, as effectively as if the action was brought against such defendants by name.

D(6)(f) Defending before or after judgment. A defendant against whom publication is ordered or such defendant’s representatives, on application and sufficient cause shown, at any time before judgment, shall be allowed to defend the action. A defendant against whom publication is ordered or such defendant’s representatives may, upon good cause shown and upon such terms as may be proper, be allowed to defend after judgment and within one year after entry of judgment. If the defense is successful, and the judgment or any part thereof has been collected or otherwise enforced, restitution may be ordered by the court, but the title to property sold upon execution issued on such judgment, to a purchaser in good faith, shall not be affected thereby.

D(6)(g) Defendant who cannot be served. Within the meaning of this subsection, a defendant cannot be served with summons by any method authorized by subsection (3) of this section if: (i) service pursuant to subparagraph (4)(a)(i) of this section is not authorized, and the plaintiff attempted service of summons by all of the methods authorized by subsection (3) of this section and was unable to complete service, or (ii) if the plaintiff knew that service by such methods could not be accomplished.

 

E By whom served; compensation. A summons may be served by any competent person 18 years of age or older who is a resident of the state where service is made or of this state and is not a party to the action nor, except as provided in ORS 180.260, an officer, director, or employee of, nor attorney for, any party, corporate or otherwise. However, service pursuant to subparagraph D(2)(d)(i) of this rule may be made by an attorney for any party. Compensation to a sheriff or a sheriff’s deputy in this state who serves a summons shall be prescribed by statute or rule. If any other person serves the summons, a reasonable fee may be paid for service. This compensation shall be part of disbursements and shall be recovered as provided in Rule 68.

 

F Return; proof of service.

F(1) Return of summons. The summons shall be promptly returned to the clerk with whom the complaint is filed with proof of service or mailing, or that defendant cannot be found. The summons may be returned by first class mail.

F(2) Proof of service. Proof of service of summons or mailing may be made as follows:

F(2)(a) Service other than publication. Service other than publication shall be proved by:

F(2)(a)(i) Certificate of service when summons not served by sheriff or deputy. If the summons is not served by a sheriff or a sheriff’s deputy, the certificate of the server indicating: the time, place, and manner of service; that the server is a competent person 18 years of age or older and a resident of the state of service or this state and is not a party to nor an officer, director, or employee of, nor attorney for any party, corporate or otherwise; and that the server knew that the person, firm, or corporation served is the identical one named in the action. If the defendant is not personally served, the server shall state in the certificate when, where, and with whom true copies of the summons and the complaint were left or describe in detail the manner and circumstances of service. If true copies of the summons and the complaint were mailed, the certificate may be made by the person completing the mailing or the attorney for any party and shall state the circumstances of mailing and the return receipt shall be attached.

F(2)(a)(ii) Certificate of service by sheriff or deputy. If the summons is served by a sheriff or a sheriff’s deputy, the sheriff’s or deputy’s certificate of service indicating the time, place, and manner of service, and if defendant is not personally served, when, where, and with whom true copies of the summons and the complaint were left or describing in detail the manner and circumstances of service. If true copies of the summons and the complaint were mailed, the certificate shall state the circumstances of mailing and the return receipt shall be attached.

F(2)(b) Publication. Service by publication shall be proved by an affidavit or by a declaration.

F(2)(b)(i) A publication by affidavit shall be in substantially the following form:

______________________________________________________________________________

Affidavit of Publication

 

State of Oregon )

) ss.

County of )

 

I, __________, being first duly sworn, depose and say that I am the __________ (here set forth the title or job description of the person making the affidavit), of the __________, a newspaper of general circulation published at __________ in the aforesaid county and state; that I know from my personal knowledge that the __________, a printed copy of which is hereto annexed, was published in the entire issue of said newspaper four times in the following issues: (here set forth dates of issues in which the same was published).

 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this ________ day of ________, 2________.

 

____________________

Notary Public for Oregon

My commission expires

___day of ________, 2___.

 

______________________________________________________________________________

F(2)(b)(ii) A publication by declaration shall be in substantially the following form:

______________________________________________________________________________

Declaration of Publication

 

State of Oregon )

) ss.

County of )

 

I, __________, say that I am the __________ (here set forth the title or job description of the person making the declaration), of the __________, a newspaper of general circulation published at __________ in the aforesaid county and state; that I know from my personal knowledge that the __________, a printed copy of which is hereto annexed, was published in the entire issue of said newspaper four times in the following issues: (here set forth dates of issues in which the same was published).

 

I hereby declare that the above statement is true to the best of my knowledge and belief, and that I understand it is made for use as evidence in court and is subject to penalty for perjury.

 

____________________

___day of ________, 2___.

______________________________________________________________________________

F(2)(c) Making and certifying affidavit. The affidavit of service may be made and certified before a notary public, or other official authorized to administer oaths and acting as such by authority of the United States, or any state or territory of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and the official seal, if any, of such person shall be affixed to the affidavit. The signature of such notary or other official, when so attested by the affixing of the official seal, if any, of such person, shall be prima facie evidence of authority to make and certify such affidavit.

F(2)(d) Form of certificate, affidavit or declaration. A certificate, affidavit, or declaration containing proof of service may be made upon the summons or as a separate document attached to the summons.

F(3) Written admission. In any case proof may be made by written admission of the defendant.

F(4) Failure to make proof; validity of service. If summons has been properly served, failure to make or file a proper proof of service shall not affect the validity of the service.

G Disregard of error; actual notice. Failure to comply with provisions of this rule relating to the form of summons, issuance of summons, or who may serve summons shall not affect the validity of service of summons or the existence of jurisdiction over the person if the court determines that the defendant received actual notice of the substance and pendency of the action. The court may allow amendment to a summons, affidavit, declaration, or certificate of service of summons. The court shall disregard any error in the content of summons that does not materially prejudice the substantive rights of the party against whom summons was issued. If service is made in any manner complying with subsection D(1) of this rule, the court shall also disregard any error in the service of summons that does not violate the due process rights of the party against whom summons was issued. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §9; §D amended by CCP 12/13/80; §§D,E amended by 1981 c.898 §§4,5; §§D,F amended by CCP 12/4/82; §§D,F amended by 1983 c.751 §§3,4; §C(2) amended by CCP 12/8/84; §D(4) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §D amended by CCP 12/15/90; §§C,E amended by CCP 12/12/92; §D amended by 1995 c.79 §402 and 1995 c.664 §99; §§B,C,D,F,G amended and D(7) redesignated as D(6)(g) by CCP 12/14/96; §§D,E amended by CCP 12/12/98; §D amended by CCP 12/9/00; amended by 2003 c.194 §5; §§A,B,D,F,G amended and §H deleted by CCP 12/9/06; §C amended by 2007 c.129 §23; §D amended by CCP 12/13/08 and 2009 c.11 §4; §C amended by 2011 c.398 §3]

 

PROCESS

RULE 8

 

A Process. All process authorized to be issued by any court or officer thereof shall run in the name of the State of Oregon and be signed by the officer issuing the same, and if such process is issued by a clerk of court, the seal of office of such clerk shall be affixed to such process. Summonses and subpoenas are not process and are covered by Rule 7 and Rule 55, respectively.

 

B Where county is a party. Process in an action where any county is a party shall be served on the county clerk or the person exercising the duties of that office, or if the office is vacant, upon the chairperson of the governing body of the county, or in the absence of the chairperson, any member thereof.

 

C Service or execution. Any civil process may be served or executed on Sunday or any other legal holiday. No limitation or prohibition stated in ORS 1.060 shall apply to such service or execution of any civil process on a Sunday or other legal holiday.

 

D Proof of service or execution. Proof of service or execution of process shall be made as provided in Rule 7 F. [CCP 12/2/78; §A amended and §D deleted and §E redesignated by CCP 12/9/06]

 

SERVICE AND FILING OF PLEADINGS AND OTHER PAPERS

RULE 9

 

A Service; when required. Except as otherwise provided in these rules, every order; every pleading subsequent to the original complaint; every written motion other than one which may be heard ex parte; and every written request, notice, appearance, demand, offer of judgment, designation of record on appeal, and similar document shall be served upon each of the parties. No service need be made on parties in default for failure to appear except that pleadings asserting new or additional claims for relief against them shall be served upon them in the manner provided for service of summons in Rule 7.

 

B Service; how made. Whenever under these rules service is required or permitted to be made upon a party, and that party is represented by an attorney, the service shall be made upon the attorney unless otherwise ordered by the court. Service upon the attorney or upon a party shall be made by delivering a copy to such attorney or party, by mailing it to such attorney’s or party’s last known address or, if the party is represented by an attorney, by telephonic facsimile communication device or e-mail as provided in sections F or G of this rule. Delivery of a copy within this rule means: handing it to the person to be served; or leaving it at such person’s office with such person’s clerk or person apparently in charge thereof; or, if there is no one in charge, leaving it in a conspicuous place therein; or, if the office is closed or the person to be served has no office, leaving it at such person’s dwelling house or usual place of abode with some person over 14 years of age then residing therein. A party who has appeared without providing an appropriate address for service may be served by filing a copy of the pleading or other documents with the court. Service by mail is complete upon mailing. Service of any notice or other document to bring a party into contempt may only be upon such party personally.

 

C Filing; proof of service. Except as provided by section D of this rule, all papers required to be served upon a party by section A of this rule shall be filed with the court within a reasonable time after service. Except as otherwise provided in Rule 7 and Rule 8, proof of service of all papers required or permitted to be served may be by written acknowledgment of service, by affidavit or declaration of the person making service, or by certificate of an attorney. Such proof of service may be made upon the papers served or as a separate document attached to the papers. Where service is made by telephonic facsimile communication device or e-mail, proof of service shall be made by affidavit or declaration of the person making service, or by certificate of an attorney or sheriff. Attached to such affidavit, declaration, or certificate shall be the printed confirmation of receipt of the message generated by the transmitting machine, if facsimile communication is used. If service is made by e-mail under section G of this rule, the person making service must certify that he or she received confirmation that the message was received, either by return e-mail, automatically generated message, telephonic facsimile, or orally.

 

D When filing not required. Notices of deposition, requests made pursuant to Rule 43, and answers and responses thereto shall not be filed with the court. This rule shall not preclude their use as exhibits or as evidence on a motion or at trial. Offers of compromise made pursuant to Rule 54 E shall not be filed with the court except as provided in Rule 54 E(3).

 

E Filing with the court defined. The filing of pleadings and other documents with the court as required by these rules shall be made by filing them with the clerk of the court or the person exercising the duties of that office. The clerk or the person exercising the duties of that office shall endorse upon such pleading or document the time of day, the day of the month, the month, and the year. The clerk or person exercising the duties of that office is not required to receive for filing any document unless the name of the court, the title of the cause and the document, the names of the parties, and the attorney for the party requesting filing, if there be one, are legibly endorsed on the front of the document, nor unless the contents thereof are legible.

 

F Service by telephonic facsimile communication device. Whenever under these rules service is required or permitted to be made upon a party, and that party is represented by an attorney, the service may be made upon the attorney by means of a telephonic facsimile communication device if the attorney maintains such a device at the attorney’s office and the device is operating at the time service is made. Service in this manner shall be equivalent to service by mail for purposes of Rule 10 C.

 

G Service by e-mail. Service by e-mail is prohibited unless attorneys agree in writing to e-mail service. This agreement must provide the names and e-mail addresses of all attorneys and the attorneys’ designees, if any, to be served. Any attorney may withdraw his or her agreement at any time, upon proper notice via e-mail and any one of the other methods authorized by this rule. Service is effective under this method when the sender has received confirmation that the attachment has been received by the designated recipient. Confirmation of receipt does not include an automatically generated message that the recipient is out of the office or otherwise unavailable. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §10; §B amended by CCP 12/13/80; §B amended by CCP 12/4/82; §§C,D,E amended by CCP 12/13/86; amended by 1989 c.295 §1; §C amended by 2003 c.194 §6; §F amended by CCP 12/11/04; §§A,B,E amended by CCP 12/9/06 and 2007 c.129 §§24,25,26; §C amended by CCP 12/9/06 and 2007 c.255 §15; §G adopted by CCP 12/9/06; §D amended by CCP 12/11/10]

 

TIME

RULE 10

 

A Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, by the local rules of any court or by order of court, the day of the act, event, or default from which the designated period of time begins to run shall not be included. The last day of the period so computed shall be included, unless it is a Saturday or a legal holiday, including Sunday, in which event the period runs until the end of the next day which is not a Saturday or a legal holiday. If the period so computed relates to serving a public officer or filing a document at a public office, and if the last day falls on a day when that particular office is closed before the end of or for all of the normal work day, the last day shall be excluded in computing the period of time within which service is to be made or the document is to be filed, in which event the period runs until the close of office hours on the next day the office is open for business. When the period of time prescribed or allowed (without regard to section C of this rule) is less than 7 days, intermediate Saturdays and legal holidays, including Sundays, shall be excluded in the computation. As used in this rule, “legal holiday” means legal holiday as defined in ORS 187.010 and 187.020. This section does not apply to any time limitation governed by ORS 174.120.

 

B Unaffected by expiration of term. The period of time provided for the doing of any act or the taking of any proceeding is not affected or limited by the continued existence or expiration of a term of court. The continued existence or expiration of a term of court in no way affects the power of a court to do any act or take any proceeding in any civil action which is pending before it.

 

C Additional time after service by mail. Except for service of summons, whenever a party has the right or is required to do some act or take some proceedings within a prescribed period after the service of a notice or other paper upon such party and the notice or paper is served by mail, 3 days shall be added to the prescribed period. [CCP 12/2/78; §C amended by CCP 12/13/80; §A amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §A amended by 2002 s.s.1 c.10 §9]

 

RULE 11 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

PLEADINGS LIBERALLY CONSTRUED; DISREGARD OF ERROR

RULE 12

 

A Liberal construction. All pleadings shall be liberally construed with a view of substantial justice between the parties.

 

B Disregard of error or defect not affecting substantial right. The court shall, in every stage of an action, disregard any error or defect in the pleadings or proceedings which does not affect the substantial rights of the adverse party. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

KINDS OF PLEADINGS ALLOWED; FORMER PLEADINGS ABOLISHED

RULE 13

 

A Pleadings. The pleadings are the written statements by the parties of the facts constituting their respective claims and defenses.

 

B Pleadings allowed. There shall be a complaint and an answer. An answer may include a counterclaim against a plaintiff, including a party joined under Rule 22 D, and a cross-claim against a defendant, including a party joined under Rule 22 D. A pleading against any person joined under Rule 22 C is a third party complaint. There shall be an answer to a cross-claim and a third party complaint. There shall be a reply to a counterclaim denominated as such and a reply to assert any affirmative allegations in avoidance of any defenses asserted in an answer. There shall be no other pleading unless the court orders otherwise.

 

C Pleadings abolished. Demurrers and pleas shall not be used. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §11]

 

MOTIONS

RULE 14

 

A Motions; in writing; grounds. An application for an order is a motion. Every motion, unless made during trial, shall be in writing, shall state with particularity the grounds therefor, and shall set forth the relief or order sought.

 

B Form. The rules applicable to captions, signing, and other matters of form of pleadings, including Rule 17 A, apply to all motions and other papers provided for by these rules. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §12]

 

TIME FOR FILING PLEADINGS OR MOTIONS

RULE 15

 

A Time for filing motions and pleadings. A motion or answer to the complaint or third party complaint and the reply to a counterclaim or answer to a cross-claim shall be filed with the clerk by the time required by Rule 7 C(2) to appear and defend. Any other motion or responsive pleading shall be filed not later than 10 days after service of the pleading moved against or to which the responsive pleading is directed.

 

B Pleading after motion.

B(1) If the court denies a motion, any responsive pleading required shall be filed within 10 days after service of the order, unless the order otherwise directs.

B(2) If the court grants a motion and an amended pleading is allowed or required, such pleading shall be filed within 10 days after service of the order, unless the order otherwise directs.

 

C Responding to amended pleading. A party shall respond to an amended pleading within the time remaining for response to the original pleading or within 10 days after service of the amended pleading, whichever period may be the longer, unless the court otherwise directs.

 

D Enlarging time to plead or do other act. The court may, in its discretion, and upon such terms as may be just, allow an answer or reply to be made, or allow any other pleading or motion after the time limited by the procedural rules, or by an order enlarge such time. [CCP 12/2/78; §A amended by 1979 c.284 §13; §A amended by CCP 12/10/94]

 

FORM OF PLEADINGS

RULE 16

 

A Captions; names of parties. Every pleading shall contain a caption setting forth the name of the court, the title of the action, the register number of the cause, and a designation in accordance with Rule 13 B. In the complaint the title of the action shall include the names of all the parties, but in other pleadings it is sufficient to state the name of the first party on each side with an appropriate indication of other parties.

 

B Concise and direct statement; paragraphs; separate statement of claims or defenses. Every pleading shall consist of plain and concise statements in paragraphs consecutively numbered throughout the pleading with Arabic numerals, the contents of which shall be limited as far as practicable to a statement of a single set of circumstances, and a paragraph may be referred to by number in all succeeding pleadings. Each separate claim or defense shall be separately stated. Within each claim alternative theories of recovery shall be identified as separate counts.

 

C Consistency in pleading alternative statements. Inconsistent claims or defenses are not objectionable, and when a party is in doubt as to which of two or more statements of fact is true, the party may allege them in the alternative. A party may also state as many separate claims or defenses as the party has, regardless of consistency and whether based upon legal or equitable grounds or upon both. All statements shall be made subject to the obligation set forth in Rule 17.

 

D Adoption by reference. Statements in a pleading may be adopted by reference in a different part of the same pleading. [CCP 12/2/78; §B amended by CCP 12/8/84; §B amended by CCP 12/13/86]

 

SIGNING OF PLEADINGS, MOTIONS AND OTHER PAPERS; SANCTIONS

RULE 17

 

A Signing by party or attorney; certificate. Every pleading, motion, and other document of a party represented by an attorney shall be signed by at least one attorney of record who is an active member of the Oregon State Bar. A party who is not represented by an attorney shall sign the pleading, motion, or other document and state the address of the party. The signature for filings may be in the form approved for electronic filing in accordance with these rules or any other rule of court. Pleadings need not be verified or accompanied by an affidavit or declaration.

 

B Pleadings, motions and other papers not signed. If a pleading, motion or other paper is not signed, it shall be stricken unless it is signed promptly after the omission is called to the attention of the pleader or movant.

 

C Certifications to court.

C(1) An attorney or party who signs, files or otherwise submits an argument in support of a pleading, motion or other document makes the certifications to the court identified in subsections (2) to (5) of this section, and further certifies that the certifications are based on the person’s reasonable knowledge, information and belief, formed after the making of such inquiry as is reasonable under the circumstances.

C(2) A party or attorney certifies that the pleading, motion or other document is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation.

C(3) An attorney certifies that the claims, defenses, and other legal positions taken in the pleading, motion or other document are warranted by existing law or by a nonfrivolous argument for the extension, modification or reversal of existing law or the establishment of new law.

C(4) A party or attorney certifies that the allegations and other factual assertions in the pleading, motion or other document are supported by evidence. Any allegation or other factual assertion that the party or attorney does not wish to certify to be supported by evidence must be specifically identified. The attorney or party certifies that the attorney or party reasonably believes that an allegation or other factual assertion so identified will be supported by evidence after further investigation and discovery.

C(5) The party or attorney certifies that any denials of factual assertion are supported by evidence. Any denial of factual assertion that the party or attorney does not wish to certify to be supported by evidence must be specifically identified. The attorney or party certifies that the attorney or party believes that a denial of a factual assertion so identified is reasonably based on a lack of information or belief.

 

D Sanctions.

D(1) The court may impose sanctions against a person or party who is found to have made a false certification under section C of this rule, or who is found to be responsible for a false certification under section C of this rule. A sanction may be imposed under this section only after notice and an opportunity to be heard are provided to the party or attorney. A law firm is jointly liable for any sanction imposed against a partner, associate or employee of the firm, unless the court determines that joint liability would be unjust under the circumstances.

D(2) Sanctions may be imposed under this section upon motion of a party or upon the court’s own motion. If the court seeks to impose sanctions on its own motion, the court shall direct the party or attorney to appear before the court and show cause why the sanctions should not be imposed. The court may not issue an order to appear and show cause under this subsection at any time after the filing of a voluntary dismissal, compromise or settlement of the action with respect to the party or attorney against whom sanctions are sought to be imposed.

D(3) A motion by a party to the proceeding for imposition of sanctions under this section must be made separately from other motions and pleadings, and must describe with specificity the alleged false certification. A motion for imposition of sanctions based on a false certification under subsection C(4) of this rule may not be filed until 120 days after the filing of a complaint if the alleged false certification is an allegation or other factual assertion in a complaint filed within 60 days of the running of the statute of limitations for a claim made in the complaint. Sanctions may not be imposed against a party until at least 21 days after the party is served with the motion in the manner provided by Rule 9. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the court may not impose sanctions against a party if, within 21 days after the motion is served on the party, the party amends or otherwise withdraws the pleading, motion, document or argument in a manner that corrects the false certification specified in the motion. If the party does not amend or otherwise withdraw the pleading, motion, document or argument but thereafter prevails on the motion, the court may order the moving party to pay to the prevailing party reasonable attorney fees incurred by the prevailing party by reason of the motion for sanctions.

D(4) Sanctions under this section must be limited to amounts sufficient to reimburse the moving party for attorney fees and other expenses incurred by reason of the false certification, including reasonable attorney fees and expenses incurred by reason of the motion for sanctions, and upon clear and convincing evidence of wanton misconduct amounts sufficient to deter future false certification by the party or attorney and by other parties and attorneys. The sanction may include monetary penalties payable to the court. The sanction must include an order requiring payment of reasonable attorney fees and expenses incurred by the moving party by reason of the false certification.

D(5) An order imposing sanctions under this section must specifically describe the false certification and the grounds for determining that the certification was false. The order must explain the grounds for the imposition of the specific sanction that is ordered.

 

E Rule not applicable to discovery. This rule does not apply to any motion, pleading or conduct that is subject to sanction under Rule 46. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §14; §A amended by CCP 12/8/84; amended by CCP 12/13/86; amended by 1987 c.774 §12; amended by 1995 c.618 §4; §D amended by CCP 12/14/96; §A amended by 2003 c.194 §7; §§A,C,D amended by 2007 c.129 §§27,28,29; §A amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

CLAIMS FOR RELIEF

RULE 18

 

A pleading which asserts a claim for relief, whether an original claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim, shall contain:

A A plain and concise statement of the ultimate facts constituting a claim for relief without unnecessary repetition.

B A demand of the relief which the party claims; if recovery of money or damages is demanded, the amount thereof shall be stated; relief in the alternative or of several different types may be demanded. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/13/86; amended by 1987 c.774 §12a; amended by CCP 12/15/90]

 

RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS

RULE 19

 

A Defenses; form of denials. A party shall state in short and plain terms the party’s defenses to each claim asserted and shall admit or deny the allegations upon which the adverse party relies. If the party is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of an allegation, the party shall so state and this has the effect of a denial. Denials shall fairly meet the substance of the allegations denied. When a pleader intends in good faith to deny only a part or a qualification of an allegation, the pleader shall admit so much of the allegation as is true and material and shall deny only the remainder. Unless the pleader intends in good faith to controvert all of the allegations of the preceding pleading, the denials may be made as specific denials of designated allegations or paragraphs, or the pleader may generally deny all of the allegations except such designated allegations or paragraphs as the pleader expressly admits; but, when the pleader does so intend to controvert all of the allegations of the preceding pleading, the pleader may do so by general denial of all allegations of the preceding pleading subject to the obligations set forth in Rule 17.

 

B Affirmative defenses. In pleading to a preceding pleading, a party shall set forth affirmatively: accord and satisfaction; arbitration and award; assumption of risk; claim preclusion; comparative or contributory negligence; discharge in bankruptcy; duress; estoppel; failure of consideration; fraud; illegality; injury by fellow servant; issue preclusion; laches; license; payment; release; statute of frauds; statute of limitations; unconstitutionality; waiver; and any other matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense. When a party has mistakenly designated a defense as a counterclaim or a counterclaim as a defense, the court on terms, if justice so requires, shall treat the pleading as if there had been a proper designation.

 

C Effect of failure to deny. Allegations in a pleading to which a responsive pleading is required, other than those as to the amount of damages, are admitted when not denied in the responsive pleading. Allegations in a pleading to which no responsive pleading is required or permitted are taken as denied or avoided. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

SPECIAL PLEADING RULES

RULE 20

 

A Conditions precedent. In pleading the performance or occurrence of conditions precedent, it is sufficient to allege generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. A denial of performance or occurrence shall be made specifically and with particularity, and when so made the party pleading the performance or occurrence shall on the trial establish the facts showing such performance or occurrence.

 

B Judgment or other determination of court or officer; how pleaded. In pleading a judgment or other determination of a court or officer of special jurisdiction, it is not necessary to state the facts conferring jurisdiction, but such judgment or determination may be stated to have been duly given or made. If such allegation is controverted, the party pleading is bound to establish on the trial the facts conferring jurisdiction.

 

C Private statute; how pleaded. In pleading a private statute, or a right derived therefrom, it is sufficient to refer to such statute by its title and the day of its passage, and the court shall thereupon take judicial notice thereof.

 

D Corporate existence of city or county and of ordinances or comprehensive plans generally; how pleaded.

D(1) In pleading the corporate existence of any city, it shall be sufficient to state in the pleading that the city is existing and duly incorporated and organized under the laws of the state of its incorporation. In pleading the existence of any county, it shall be sufficient to state in the pleading that the county is existing and was formed under the laws of the state in which it is located.

D(2) In pleading an ordinance, comprehensive plan, or enactment of any county or incorporated city, or a right derived therefrom, in any court, it shall be sufficient to refer to the ordinance, comprehensive plan, or enactment by its title, if any, otherwise by its commonly accepted name or number, and the date of its passage or the date of its approval when approval is necessary to render it effective, and the court shall thereupon take judicial notice thereof. As used in this subsection, “comprehensive plan” has the meaning given that term by ORS 197.015.

 

E Libel or slander action.

E(1) In an action for libel or slander it shall not be necessary to state in the complaint any extrinsic facts for the purpose of showing the application to the plaintiff of the defamatory matter out of which the cause of action arose; but it shall be sufficient to state generally that the same was published or spoken concerning the plaintiff. If such allegation is controverted, the plaintiff shall be bound to establish on the trial that it was so published or spoken.

E(2) In the answer, the defendant may allege both the truth of the matter charged as defamatory, and any mitigating circumstances, to reduce the amount of damages, and whether the defendant proves the justification or not, the defendant may give in evidence the mitigating circumstances.

 

F Official document or act. In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to allege that the document was issued or the act done in compliance with law.

 

G Recitals and negative pregnants. No allegations in a pleading shall be held insufficient on the grounds that they are pled by way of recital rather than alleged directly. No denial shall be treated as an admission on the ground that it contains a negative pregnant.

 

H Fictitious parties. When a party is ignorant of the name of an opposing party and so alleges in a pleading, the opposing party may be designated by any name, and when such party’s true name is discovered, the process and all pleadings and proceedings in the action may be amended by substituting the true name.

 

I Designation of unknown heirs in actions relating to property. When the heirs of any deceased person are proper parties defendant to any action relating to property in this state, and the names and residences of such heirs are unknown, they may be proceeded against under the name and title of the “unknown heirs” of the deceased.

 

J Designation of unknown persons. In any action to determine any adverse claim, estate, lien, or interest in property, or to quiet title to property, the plaintiff may include as a defendant in such action, and insert in the title thereof, in addition to the names of such persons or parties as appear of record to have, and other persons or parties who are known to have, some title, claim, estate, lien, or interest in the property in controversy, the following: “Also all other persons or parties unknown claiming any right, title, lien, or interest in the property described in the complaint herein.”

[CCP 12/2/78]

 

DEFENSES AND OBJECTIONS; HOW PRESENTED; BY PLEADING OR MOTION; MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS

RULE 21

 

A How presented. Every defense, in law or fact, to a claim for relief in any pleading, whether a complaint, counterclaim, cross-claim or third party claim, shall be asserted in the responsive pleading thereto, except that the following defenses may at the option of the pleader be made by motion to dismiss: (1) lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter, (2) lack of jurisdiction over the person, (3) that there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause, (4) that plaintiff has not the legal capacity to sue, (5) insufficiency of summons or process or insufficiency of service of summons or process, (6) that the party asserting the claim is not the real party in interest, (7) failure to join a party under Rule 29, (8) failure to state ultimate facts sufficient to constitute a claim, and (9) that the pleading shows that the action has not been commenced within the time limited by statute. A motion to dismiss making any of these defenses shall be made before pleading if a further pleading is permitted. The grounds upon which any of the enumerated defenses are based shall be stated specifically and with particularity in the responsive pleading or motion. No defense or objection is waived by being joined with one or more other defenses or objections in a responsive pleading or motion. If, on a motion to dismiss asserting defenses (1) through (7), the facts constituting such defenses do not appear on the face of the pleading and matters outside the pleading, including affidavits, declarations and other evidence, are presented to the court, all parties shall be given a reasonable opportunity to present affidavits, declarations and other evidence, and the court may determine the existence or nonexistence of the facts supporting such defense or may defer such determination until further discovery or until trial on the merits. If the court grants a motion to dismiss, the court may enter judgment in favor of the moving party or grant leave to file an amended complaint. If the court grants the motion to dismiss on the basis of defense (3), the court may enter judgment in favor of the moving party, stay the proceeding, or defer entry of judgment.

 

B Motion for judgment on the pleadings. After the pleadings are closed, but within such time as not to delay the trial, any party may move for judgment on the pleadings.

 

C Preliminary hearings. The defenses specifically denominated (1) through (9) in section A of this rule, whether made in a pleading or by motion, and the motion for judgment on the pleadings mentioned in section B of this rule shall be heard and determined before trial on application of any party, unless the court orders that the hearing and determination thereof be deferred until the trial.

 

D Motion to make more definite and certain. Upon motion made by a party before responding to a pleading, or if no responsive pleading is permitted by these rules upon motion by a party within 10 days after service of the pleading, or upon the court’s own initiative at any time, the court may require the pleading to be made definite and certain by amendment when the allegations of a pleading are so indefinite or uncertain that the precise nature of the charge, defense, or reply is not apparent. If the motion is granted and the order of the court is not obeyed within 10 days after service of the order or within such other time as the court may fix, the court may strike the pleading to which the motion was directed or make such order as it deems just.

 

E Motion to strike. Upon motion made by a party before responding to a pleading or, if no responsive pleading is permitted by these rules, upon motion made by a party within 10 days after the service of the pleading upon such party or upon the court’s own initiative at any time, the court may order stricken: (1) any sham, frivolous, or irrelevant pleading or defense or any pleading containing more than one claim or defense not separately stated; (2) any insufficient defense or any sham, frivolous, irrelevant, or redundant matter inserted in a pleading.

 

F Consolidation of defenses in motion. A party who makes a motion under this rule may join with it any other motions herein provided for and then available to the party. If a party makes a motion under this rule, except a motion to dismiss for lack of jurisdiction over the person or insufficiency of summons or process or insufficiency of service of summons or process, but omits therefrom any defense or objection then available to the party which this rule permits to be raised by motion, the party shall not thereafter make a motion based on the defense or objection so omitted, except a motion as provided in subsection G(3) of this rule on any of the grounds there stated. A party may make one motion to dismiss for lack of jurisdiction over the person or insufficiency of summons or process or insufficiency of service of summons or process without consolidation of defenses required by this section.

 

G Waiver or preservation of certain defenses.

G(1) A defense of lack of jurisdiction over the person, that there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause, insufficiency of summons or process, or insufficiency of service of summons or process, is waived under either of the following circumstances: (a) if the defense is omitted from a motion in the circumstances described in section F of this rule, or (b) if the defense is neither made by motion under this rule nor included in a responsive pleading. The defenses referred to in this subsection shall not be raised by amendment.

G(2) A defense that a plaintiff has not the legal capacity to sue, that the party asserting the claim is not the real party in interest, or that the action has not been commenced within the time limited by statute, is waived if it is neither made by motion under this rule nor included in a responsive pleading or an amendment thereof. Leave of court to amend a pleading to assert the defenses referred to in this subsection shall only be granted upon a showing by the party seeking to amend that such party did not know and reasonably could not have known of the existence of the defense or that other circumstances make denial of leave to amend unjust.

G(3) A defense of failure to state ultimate facts constituting a claim, a defense of failure to join a party indispensable under Rule 29, and an objection of failure to state a legal defense to a claim or insufficiency of new matter in a reply to avoid a defense, may be made in any pleading permitted or ordered under Rule 13 B or by motion for judgment on the pleadings, or at the trial on the merits. The objection or defense, if made at trial, shall be disposed of as provided in Rule 23 B in light of any evidence that may have been received.

G(4) If it appears by motion of the parties or otherwise that the court lacks jurisdiction over the subject matter, the court shall dismiss the action. [CCP 12/2/78; §§F,G amended by 1979 c.284 §§15,16; §F amended by CCP 12/13/80; §A amended by CCP 12/4/82; §E amended by 1983 c.763 §58; §E amended by CCP 12/8/84; §G amended by 1987 c.714 §6; §G amended by 1995 c.658 §118; §A amended by CCP 12/9/00; §A amended by 2003 c.194 §8; §A amended by CCP 12/11/10]

 

COUNTERCLAIMS, CROSS-CLAIMS, AND THIRD PARTY CLAIMS

RULE 22

 

A Counterclaims.

A(1) Each defendant may set forth as many counterclaims, both legal and equitable, as such defendant may have against a plaintiff.

A(2) A counterclaim may or may not diminish or defeat the recovery sought by the opposing party. It may claim relief exceeding in amount or different in kind from that sought in the pleading of the opposing party.

 

B Cross-claim against codefendant.

B(1) In any action where two or more parties are joined as defendants, any defendant may in such defendant’s answer allege a cross-claim against any other defendant. A cross-claim asserted against a codefendant must be one existing in favor of the defendant asserting the cross-claim and against another defendant, between whom a separate judgment might be had in the action and shall be: (a) one arising out of the occurrence or transaction set forth in the complaint; or (b) related to any property that is the subject matter of the action brought by plaintiff.

B(2) A cross-claim may include a claim that the defendant against whom it is asserted is liable, or may be liable, to the defendant asserting the cross-claim for all or part of the claim asserted by the plaintiff.

B(3) An answer containing a cross-claim shall be served upon the parties who have appeared.

 

C Third party practice.

C(1) After commencement of the action, a defending party, as a third party plaintiff, may cause a summons and complaint to be served upon a person not a party to the action who is or may be liable to the third party plaintiff for all or part of the plaintiff’s claim against the third party plaintiff as a matter of right not later than 90 days after service of the plaintiff’s summons and complaint on the defending party. Otherwise the third party plaintiff must obtain agreement of parties who have appeared and leave of court. The person served with the summons and third party complaint, hereinafter called the third party defendant, shall assert any defenses to the third party plaintiff’s claim as provided in Rule 21 and may assert counterclaims against the third party plaintiff and cross-claims against other third party defendants as provided in this rule. The third party defendant may assert against the plaintiff any defenses which the third party plaintiff has to the plaintiff’s claim. The third party defendant may also assert any claim against the plaintiff arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff’s claim against the third party plaintiff. The plaintiff may assert any claim against the third party defendant arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff’s claim against the third party plaintiff, and the third party defendant thereupon shall assert the third party defendant’s defenses as provided in Rule 21 and may assert the third party defendant’s counterclaims and cross-claims as provided in this rule. Any party may move to strike the third party claim, or for its severance or separate trial. A third party may proceed under this section against any person not a party to the action who is or may be liable to the third party defendant for all or part of the claim made in the action against the third party defendant.

C(2) A plaintiff against whom a counterclaim has been asserted may cause a third party to be brought in under circumstances which would entitle a defendant to do so under subsection C(1) of this section.

 

D Joinder of additional parties.

D(1) Persons other than those made parties to the original action may be made parties to a counterclaim or cross-claim in accordance with the provisions of Rules 28 and 29.

D(2) A defendant may, in an action on a contract brought by an assignee of rights under that contract, join as parties to that action all or any persons liable for attorney fees under ORS 20.097. As used in this subsection “contract” includes any instrument or document evidencing a debt.

D(3) In any action against a party joined under this section of this rule, the party joined shall be treated as a defendant for purposes of service of summons and time to answer under Rule 7.

 

E Separate trial. Upon motion of any party or on the court’s own initiative, the court may order a separate trial of any counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim so alleged if to do so would: (1) be more convenient; (2) avoid prejudice; or (3) be more economical and expedite the matter. [CCP 12/2/78; §D amended by 1979 c.284 §17; §A amended by CCP 12/13/80; §C amended by CCP 12/4/82; §C amended by CCP 12/10/94]

 

AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS

RULE 23

 

A Amendments. A pleading may be amended by a party once as a matter of course at any time before a responsive pleading is served or, if the pleading is one to which no responsive pleading is permitted, the party may so amend it at any time within 20 days after it is served. Otherwise a party may amend the pleading only by leave of court or by written consent of the adverse party; and leave shall be freely given when justice so requires. Whenever an amended pleading is filed, it shall be served upon all parties who are not in default, but as to all parties who are in default or against whom a default previously has been entered, judgment may be rendered in accordance with the prayer of the original pleading served upon them; and neither the amended pleading nor the process thereon need be served upon such parties in default unless the amended pleading asks for additional relief against the parties in default.

 

B Amendments to conform to the evidence. When issues not raised by the pleadings are tried by express or implied consent of the parties, they shall be treated in all respects as if they had been raised in the pleadings. Such amendment of the pleadings as may be necessary to cause them to conform to the evidence and to raise these issues may be made upon motion of any party at any time, even after judgment; but failure so to amend does not affect the result of the trial of these issues. If evidence is objected to at the trial on the ground that it is not within the issues made by the pleadings, the court may allow the pleadings to be amended when the presentation of the merits of the action will be subserved thereby and the objecting party fails to satisfy the court that the admission of such evidence would prejudice such party in maintaining an action or defense upon the merits. The court may grant a continuance to enable the objecting party to meet such evidence.

 

C Relation back of amendments. Whenever the claim or defense asserted in the amended pleading arose out of the conduct, transaction, or occurrence set forth or attempted to be set forth in the original pleading, the amendment relates back to the date of the original pleading. An amendment changing the party against whom a claim is asserted relates back if the foregoing provision is satisfied and, within the period provided by law for commencing the action against the party to be brought in by amendment, such party (1) has received such notice of the institution of the action that the party will not be prejudiced in maintaining any defense on the merits, and (2) knew or should have known that, but for a mistake concerning the identity of the proper party, the action would have been brought against the party brought in by amendment.

 

D How amendment made. When any pleading is amended before trial, mere clerical errors excepted, it shall be done by filing a new pleading, to be called the amended pleading, or by interlineation, deletion, or otherwise. Such amended pleading shall be complete in itself, without reference to the original or any preceding amended one.

 

E Supplemental pleadings. Upon motion of a party the court may, upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are just, permit the party to serve a supplemental pleading setting forth transactions or occurrences or events which have happened since the date of the pleading sought to be supplemented. Permission may be granted even though the original pleading is defective in its statement of a claim for relief or defense. If the court deems it advisable that the adverse party plead to the supplemental pleading, it shall so order, specifying the time therefor. [CCP 12/2/78; §§B,D,E,F,G amended by CCP 12/13/80]

 

JOINDER OF CLAIMS

RULE 24

 

A Permissive joinder. A plaintiff may join in a complaint, either as independent or as alternate claims, as many claims, legal or equitable, as the plaintiff has against an opposing party.

 

B Forcible entry and detainer and rental due. If a claim of forcible entry and detainer and a claim for rental due are joined, the defendant shall have the same time to appear as is provided by rule or statute in actions for the recovery of rental due.

 

C Separate statement. The claims joined must be separately stated and must not require different places of trial. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §18]

 

EFFECT OF PROCEEDING AFTER MOTION OR AMENDMENT

RULE 25

 

A Amendment or pleading over after motion; non-waiver of defenses or objections. When a motion to dismiss or a motion to strike an entire pleading or a motion for a judgment on the pleadings under Rule 21 is allowed, the court may, upon such terms as may be proper, allow the party to amend the pleading. In all cases where part of a pleading is ordered stricken, the pleading shall be amended in accordance with Rule 23 D. By amending a pleading pursuant to this section, the party amending such pleading shall not be deemed thereby to have waived the right to challenge the correctness of the court’s ruling.

 

B Amendment of pleading; objections to amended pleading not waived. If a pleading is amended, whether pursuant to sections A or B of Rule 23 or section A of this rule or pursuant to other rule or statute, a party who has filed and received a court’s ruling on any motion directed to the preceding pleading does not waive any defenses or objections asserted in such motion by failing to reassert them against the amended pleading.

 

C Denial of motion; non-waiver by filing responsive pleading. If an objection or defense is raised by motion, and the motion is denied, the party filing the motion does not waive the objection or defense by filing a responsive pleading or by failing to re-assert the objection or defense in the responsive pleading or by otherwise proceeding with the prosecution or defense of the action. [CCP 12/13/80]

 

REAL PARTY IN INTEREST; CAPACITY OF PARTNERSHIPS AND ASSOCIATIONS

RULE 26

 

A Real party in interest. Every action shall be prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest. An executor, administrator, guardian, conservator, bailee, trustee of an express trust, a party with whom or in whose name a contract has been made for the benefit of another, or a party authorized by statute may sue in that party’s own name without joining the party for whose benefit the action is brought; and when a statute of this state so provides, an action for the use or benefit of another shall be brought in the name of the state. No action shall be dismissed on the ground that it is not prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest until a reasonable time has been allowed after objection for ratification of commencement of the action by, or joinder or substitution of, the real party in interest; and such ratification, joinder, or substitution shall have the same effect as if the action had been commenced in the name of the real party in interest.

 

B Partnerships and associations. Any partnership or other unincorporated association, whether organized for profit or not, may sue in any name which it has assumed and be sued in any name which it has assumed or by which it is known. Any member of the partnership or other unincorporated association may be joined as a party in an action against the partnership or unincorporated association. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/13/80]

 

MINOR OR INCAPACITATED PARTIES

RULE 27

 

A Appearance of minor parties by guardian or conservator. When a minor, who has a conservator of such minor’s estate or a guardian, is a party to any action, such minor shall appear by the conservator or guardian as may be appropriate or, if the court so orders, by a guardian ad litem appointed by the court in which the action is brought. If the minor does not have a conservator of such minor’s estate or a guardian, the minor shall appear by a guardian ad litem appointed by the court. The court shall appoint some suitable person to act as guardian ad litem:

A(1) When the minor is plaintiff, upon application of the minor, if the minor is 14 years of age or older, or upon application of a relative or friend of the minor if the minor is under 14 years of age.

A(2) When the minor is defendant, upon application of the minor, if the minor is 14 years of age or older, filed within the period of time specified by these rules or other rule or statute for appearance and answer after service of summons, or if the minor fails so to apply or is under 14 years of age, upon application of any other party or of a relative or friend of the minor.

 

B Appearance of incapacitated person by conservator or guardian. When a person who is incapacitated or financially incapable, as defined in ORS 125.005, who has a conservator of such person’s estate or a guardian, is a party to any action, the person shall appear by the conservator or guardian as may be appropriate or, if the court so orders, by a guardian ad litem appointed by the court in which the action is brought. If the person does not have a conservator of such person’s estate or a guardian, the person shall appear by a guardian ad litem appointed by the court. The court shall appoint some suitable person to act as guardian ad litem:

B(1) When the person who is incapacitated or financially incapable, as defined in ORS 125.005, is plaintiff, upon application of a relative or friend of the person.

B(2) When the person is defendant, upon application of a relative or friend of the person filed within the period of time specified by these rules or other rule or statute for appearance and answer after service of summons, or if the application is not so filed, upon application of any party other than the person. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §19; §B amended by CCP 12/15/90; §B amended by 1995 c.79 §403 and 1995 c.664 §100]

 

JOINDER OF PARTIES

RULE 28

 

A Permissive joinder as plaintiffs or defendants. All persons may join in one action as plaintiffs if they assert any right to relief jointly, severally, or in the alternative in respect to or arising out of the same transaction, occurrence, or series of transactions or occurrences and if any question of law or fact common to all these persons will arise in the action. All persons may be joined in one action as defendants if there is asserted against them jointly, severally, or in the alternative, any right to relief in respect to or arising out of the same transaction, occurrence, or series of transactions or occurrences and if any question of law or fact common to all defendants will arise in the action. A plaintiff or defendant need not be interested in obtaining or defending against all the relief demanded. Judgment may be given for one or more of the plaintiffs according to their respective rights to relief, and against one or more defendants according to their respective liabilities.

 

B Separate trials. The court may make such orders as will prevent a party from being embarrassed, delayed, or put to unnecessary expense by the inclusion of a party against whom that party asserts no claim and who asserts no claim against that party. The court may order separate trials or make other orders to prevent delay or prejudice. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

JOINDER OF PERSONS NEEDED FOR JUST ADJUDICATION

RULE 29

 

A Persons to be joined if feasible. A person who is subject to service of process shall be joined as a party in the action if (1) in that person’s absence complete relief cannot be accorded among those already parties, or (2) that person claims an interest relating to the subject of the action and is so situated that the disposition in that person’s absence may (a) as a practical matter impair or impede the person’s ability to protect that interest or (b) leave any of the persons already parties subject to a substantial risk of incurring double, multiple, or otherwise inconsistent obligations by reason of their claimed interest. If such person has not been so joined, the court shall order that such person be made a party. If a person should join as a plaintiff but refuses to do so, such person shall be made a defendant, the reason being stated in the complaint.

 

B Determination by court whenever joinder not feasible. If a person as described in subsections A(1) and (2) of this rule cannot be made a party, the court shall determine whether in equity and good conscience the action should proceed among the parties before it, or should be dismissed, the absent person being thus regarded as indispensable. The factors to be considered by the court include: first, to what extent a judgment rendered in the person’s absence might be prejudicial to the person or those already parties; second, the extent to which, by protective provisions in the judgment, by the shaping of relief, or other measures, the prejudice can be lessened or avoided; third, whether a judgment rendered in the person’s absence will be adequate; fourth, whether the plaintiff will have an adequate remedy if the action is dismissed for nonjoinder.

 

C Exception of class actions. This rule is subject to the provisions of Rule 32. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §20]

 

MISJOINDER AND NONJOINDER OF PARTIES

RULE 30

 

Misjoinder and nonjoinder of parties. Misjoinder of parties is not ground for dismissal of an action. Parties may be dropped or added by order of the court on motion of any party or of its own initiative at any stage of the action and on such terms as are just. Any claim against a party may be severed and proceeded with separately. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

INTERPLEADER

RULE 31

 

A Parties. Persons having claims against the plaintiff may be joined as defendants and required to interplead when their claims are such that the plaintiff is or may be exposed to double or multiple liability. It is not ground for objection to the joinder that the claims of the several claimants or the titles on which their claims depend do not have a common origin or are not identical but adverse to and independent of one another, or that the plaintiff alleges that plaintiff is not liable in whole or in part to any or all of the claimants. A defendant exposed to similar liability may obtain such interpleader by way of cross-claim or counterclaim. The provisions of this rule supplement and do not in any way limit the joinder of parties otherwise permitted by rule or statute.

 

B Procedure. Any property or amount involved as to which the plaintiff admits liability may, upon order of the court, be deposited with the court or otherwise preserved, or secured by bond in an amount sufficient to assure payment of the liability admitted. The court may thereafter enjoin all parties before it from commencing or prosecuting any other action regarding the subject matter of the interpleader action. Upon hearing, the court may order the plaintiff discharged from liability as to property deposited or secured before determining the rights of the claimants thereto.

 

C Attorney fees. In any suit or action in interpleader filed pursuant to this rule by any party other than a party who has been compensated for acting as a surety with respect to the funds or property interpled, the party filing the suit or action in interpleader shall be awarded a reasonable attorney fee in addition to costs and disbursements upon the court ordering that the funds or property interpled be deposited with the court, secured or otherwise preserved and that the party filing the suit or action in interpleader be discharged from liability as to the funds or property. The attorney fees awarded shall be assessed against and paid from the funds or property ordered interpled by the court. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1991 c.733 §1]

 

CLASS ACTIONS

RULE 32

 

A Requirement for class action. One or more members of a class may sue or be sued as representative parties on behalf of all only if:

A(1) The class is so numerous that joinder of all members is impracticable;

A(2) There are questions of law or fact common to the class;

A(3) The claims or defenses of the representative parties are typical of the claims or defenses of the class;

A(4) The representative parties will fairly and adequately protect the interests of the class; and

A(5) In an action for damages, the representative parties have complied with the prelitigation notice provisions of section H of this rule.

 

B Class action maintainable. An action may be maintained as a class action if the prerequisites of section A of this rule are satisfied, and in addition, the court finds that a class action is superior to other available methods for the fair and efficient adjudication of the controversy. The matters pertinent to this finding include:

B(1) The extent to which the prosecution of separate actions by or against individual members of the class creates a risk of:

B(1)(a) Inconsistent or varying adjudications with respect to members of the class which would establish incompatible standards of conduct for the party opposing the class; or

B(1)(b) Adjudications with respect to members of the class which would as a practical matter be dispositive of the interests of the other members not parties to the adjudications or substantially impair or impede their ability to protect their interests;

B(2) The extent to which the relief sought would take the form of injunctive relief or corresponding declaratory relief with respect to the class as a whole;

B(3) The extent to which questions of law or fact common to the members of the class predominate over any questions affecting only individual members;

B(4) The interest of members of the class in individually controlling the prosecution or defense of separate actions;

B(5) The extent and nature of any litigation concerning the controversy already commenced by or against members of the class;

B(6) The desirability or undesirability of concentrating the litigation of the claims in the particular forum;

B(7) The difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action that will be eliminated or significantly reduced if the controversy is adjudicated by other available means; and

B(8) Whether or not the claims of individual class members are insufficient in the amounts or interests involved, in view of the complexities of the issues and the expenses of the litigation, to afford significant relief to the members of the class.

 

C Determination by order whether class action to be maintained.

C(1) As soon as practicable after the commencement of an action brought as a class action, the court shall determine by order whether and with respect to what claims or issues it is to be so maintained and shall find the facts specially and state separately its conclusions thereon. An order under this section may be conditional, and may be altered or amended before the decision on the merits.

C(2) Where a party has relied upon a statute or law which another party seeks to have declared invalid, or where a party has in good faith relied upon any legislative, judicial, or administrative interpretation or regulation which would necessarily have to be voided or held inapplicable if another party is to prevail in the class action, the court may postpone a determination under subsection (1) of this section until the court has made a determination as to the validity or applicability of the statute, law, interpretation, or regulation.

 

D Dismissal or compromise of class actions; court approval required; when notice required. Any action filed as a class action in which there has been no ruling under subsection C(1) of this rule and any action ordered maintained as a class action shall not be voluntarily dismissed or compromised without the approval of the court, and notice of the proposed dismissal or compromise shall be given to some or all members of the class in such manner as the court directs, except that if the dismissal is to be without prejudice or with prejudice against the class representative only, then such dismissal may be ordered without notice if there is a showing that no compensation in any form has passed directly or indirectly from the party opposing the class to the class representative or to the class representative’s attorney and that no promise of such compensation has been made. If the statute of limitations has run or may run against the claim of any class member, the court may require appropriate notice.

 

E Court authority over conduct of class actions. In the conduct of actions to which this rule applies, the court may make appropriate orders which may be altered or amended as may be desirable:

E(1) Determining the course of proceedings or prescribing measures to prevent undue repetition or complication in the presentation of evidence or argument, including precertification determination of a motion made by any party pursuant to Rules 21 or 47 if the court concludes that such determination will promote the fair and efficient adjudication of the controversy and will not cause undue delay;

E(2) Requiring, for the protection of class members or otherwise for the fair conduct of the action, that notice be given in such manner as the court may direct to some or all class members of any step in the action, of the proposed extent of the judgment; of the opportunity of members to signify whether they consider the representation fair and adequate, to intervene and present claims or defenses or otherwise to come into the action, or to be excluded from the class;

E(3) Imposing conditions on the representative parties, class members, or intervenors;

E(4) Requiring that the pleadings be amended to eliminate therefrom allegations as to representation of absent persons, and that the action proceed accordingly; and

E(5) Dealing with similar procedural matters.

 

F Notice and exclusion.

F(1) When ordering that an action be maintained as a class action under this rule, the court shall direct that notice be given to some or all members of the class under subsection E(2) of this rule, shall determine when and how this notice should be given and shall determine whether, when, how, and under what conditions putative members may elect to be excluded from the class. The matters pertinent to these determinations ordinarily include: (a) the nature of the controversy and the relief sought; (b) the extent and nature of any member’s injury or liability; (c) the interest of the party opposing the class in securing a final resolution of the matters in controversy; (d) the inefficiency or impracticality of separately maintained actions to resolve the controversy; (e) the cost of notifying the members of the class; and (f) the possible prejudice to members to whom notice is not directed. When appropriate, exclusion may be conditioned on a prohibition against institution or maintenance of a separate action on some or all of the matters in controversy in the class action or a prohibition against use in a separately maintained action of any judgment rendered in favor of the class from which exclusion is sought.

F(2)(i) Prior to the entry of a judgment against a defendant the court shall request members of the class who may be entitled to individual monetary recovery to submit a statement in a form prescribed by the court requesting affirmative relief which may also, where appropriate, require information regarding the nature of the loss, injury, claim, transactional relationship, or damage.

F(2)(ii) The form of the statement shall be designed to meet the ends of justice. In determining the language and form of the documents to be sent class members under subsection F(2)(i) or (iii), the court shall consider at least: (a) the nature of the acts of the defendant; (b) the amount of knowledge a class member would have about the extent of such member’s damages; (c) the nature of the class including the probable degree of sophistication of its members and any special needs created by class members’ disabilities; (d) whether it is appropriate for the statement to be prepared in alternative formats, such as large type, Braille, or in languages in addition to English; and (e) the availability of relevant information from sources other than the individual class members.

F(2)(iii) When the names and addresses of the class members can reasonably be determined from the defendant’s business records and individual monetary recoveries are capable of calculation without the need for individualized adjudications, the court, instead of requiring the statement referred to in subsection F(2)(i), may direct the defendant to send each class member notice of (a) the amount of the monetary recovery that has been calculated for that person and (b) that person’s right to request exclusion from the class. All class members who do not request exclusion within the time specified by the court shall be deemed to have requested affirmative relief in the calculated amount.

F(2)(iv) The amount of damages assessed against the defendant shall not exceed the total amount of damages determined to be allowable by the court for all individual class members who have filed the statement required by the court under subsection F(2)(i) or who are deemed to have requested affirmative relief under subsection F(2)(iii), assessable court costs, and an award of attorney fees, if any, as determined by the court.

F(2)(v) If the parties agree and the court approves, any of the procedures set forth in subsection F(2)(i) to subsection F(2)(iv) may be waived in a particular case.

F(3) If a class member fails to file the statement required by the court under subsection F(2)(i) or if a class member requests exclusion under subsection F(2)(iii) within the time specified by the court, that person’s claim for monetary recovery shall be dismissed without prejudice to the right to maintain an individual, but not a class, action for such claim.

F(4) Nothing in subsections F(2) or F(3) is intended to allow the court to award any monetary recovery that is not claimed either because a class member failed to file the statement required by the court under subsection F(2)(i), or because a class member requested exclusion under subsection F(2)(iii) within the time specified by the court.

F(5) Plaintiffs shall bear costs of any notice ordered prior to a determination of liability. The court may, however, order that defendant bear all or a specified part of the costs of any notice included with a regular mailing by defendant to its current customers or employees. The court may hold a hearing to determine how the costs of such notice shall be apportioned.

F(6) No duty of compliance with due process notice requirements is imposed on a defendant by reason of the defendant including notice with a regular mailing by the defendant to current customers or employees of the defendant under this section.

F(7) As used in this section, “customer” includes a person, including but not limited to a student, who has purchased services or goods from a defendant.

 

G Commencement or maintenance of class actions regarding particular issues; subclasses. When appropriate an action may be brought or ordered maintained as a class action with respect to particular claims or issues or by or against multiple classes or subclasses. Each subclass must separately satisfy all requirements of this rule except for subsection A(1).

 

H Notice and demand required prior to commencement of action for damages.

H(1) Thirty days or more prior to the commencement of an action for damages pursuant to the provisions of sections A and B of this rule, the potential plaintiffs’ class representative shall:

H(1)(a) Notify the potential defendant of the particular alleged cause of action; and

H(1)(b) Demand that such person correct or rectify the alleged wrong.

H(2) Such notice shall be in writing and shall be sent by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the place where the transaction occurred, such person’s principal place of business within this state, or, in the case of a corporation or limited partnership not authorized to transact business in this state, to the principal office or place of business of the corporation or limited partnership, and to any address the use of which the class representative knows, or on the basis of reasonable inquiry, has reason to believe is most likely to result in actual notice.

 

I Limitation on maintenance of class actions for damages. No action for damages may be maintained under the provisions of sections A and B of this rule upon a showing by a defendant that all of the following exist:

I(1) All potential class members similarly situated have been identified, or a reasonable effort to identify such other people has been made;

I(2) All potential class members so identified have been notified that upon their request the defendant will make the appropriate compensation, correction, or remedy of the alleged wrong;

I(3) Such compensation, correction, or remedy has been, or, in a reasonable time, will be, given; and

I(4) Such person has ceased from engaging in, or if immediate cessation is impossible or unreasonably expensive under the circumstances, such person will, within a reasonable time, cease to engage in such methods, acts, or practices alleged to be violative of the rights of potential class members.

 

J Application of sections H and I of this rule to actions for equitable relief; amendment of complaints for equitable relief to request damages permitted. An action for equitable relief brought under sections A and B of this rule may be commenced without compliance with the provisions of section H of this rule. Not less than 30 days after the commencement of an action for equitable relief, and after compliance with the provisions of section H of this rule, the class representative’s complaint may be amended without leave of court to include a request for damages. The provisions of section I of this rule shall be applicable if the complaint for injunctive relief is amended to request damages.

 

K Coordination of pending class actions sharing common question of law or fact.

K(1)(a) When class actions sharing a common question of fact or law are pending in different courts, the presiding judge of any such court, upon motion of any party or on the court’s own initiative, may request the Supreme Court to assign a Circuit Court, Court of Appeals, or Supreme Court judge to determine whether coordination of the actions is appropriate, and a judge shall be so assigned to make that determination.

K(1)(b) Coordination of class actions sharing a common question of fact or law is appropriate if one judge hearing all of the actions for all purposes in a selected site or sites will promote the ends of justice taking into account whether the common question of fact or law is predominating and significant to the litigation; the convenience of parties, witnesses, and counsel; the relative development of the actions and the work product of counsel; the efficient utilization of judicial facilities and personnel; the calendar of the courts; the disadvantages of duplicative and inconsistent rulings, orders, or judgments; and the likelihood of settlement of the actions without further litigation should coordination be denied.

K(2) If the assigned judge determines that coordination is appropriate, such judge shall order the actions coordinated, report that fact to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the Chief Justice shall assign a judge to hear and determine the actions in the site or sites the Chief Justice deems appropriate.

K(3) The judge of any court in which there is pending an action sharing a common question of fact or law with coordinated actions, upon motion of any party or on the court’s own initiative, may request the judge assigned to hear the coordinated action for an order coordinating such actions. Coordination of the action pending before the judge so requesting shall be determined under the standards specified in subsection (1) of this section.

K(4) Pending any determination of whether coordination is appropriate, the judge assigned to make the determination may stay any action being considered for, or affecting any action being considered for, coordination.

K(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Supreme Court shall provide by rule the practice and procedure for coordination of class actions in convenient courts, including provision for giving notice and presenting evidence.

 

L Form of judgment. The judgment in an action ordered maintained as a class action, whether or not favorable to the class, shall specify or describe those found to be members of the class or who, as a condition of exclusion, have agreed to be bound by the judgment. If a judgment that includes a money award is entered in favor of a class, the judgment must, when possible, identify by name each member of the class and the amount to be recovered thereby.

M Attorney fees, costs, disbursements, and litigation expenses.

M(1)(a) Attorney fees for representing a class are subject to control of the court.

M(1)(b) If under an applicable provision of law a defendant or defendant class is entitled to attorney fees, costs, or disbursements from a plaintiff class, only representative parties and those members of the class who have appeared individually are liable for those amounts. If a plaintiff is entitled to attorney fees, costs, or disbursements from a defendant class, the court may apportion the fees, costs, or disbursements among the members of the class.

M(1)(c) If the prevailing class recovers a judgment that can be divided for the purpose, the court may order reasonable attorney fees and litigation expenses of the class to be paid from the recovery.

M(1)(d) The court may order the adverse party to pay to the prevailing class its reasonable attorney fees and litigation expenses if permitted by law in similar cases not involving a class.

M(1)(e) In determining the amount of attorney fees for a prevailing class the court shall consider the following factors:

M(1)(e)(i) The time and effort expended by the attorney in the litigation, including the nature, extent, and quality of the services rendered;

M(1)(e)(ii) Results achieved and benefits conferred upon the class;

M(1)(e)(iii) The magnitude, complexity, and uniqueness of the litigation;

M(1)(e)(iv) The contingent nature of success; and

M(1)(e)(v) Appropriate criteria in Rule 1.5 of the Oregon Rules of Professional Conduct.

M(2) Before a hearing under section C of this rule or at any other time the court directs, the representative parties and the attorney for the representative parties shall file with the court, jointly or separately:

M(2)(a) A statement showing any amount paid or promised them by any person for the services rendered or to be rendered in connection with the action or for the costs and expenses of the litigation and the source of all of the amounts;

M(2)(b) A copy of any written agreement, or a summary of any oral agreement, between the representative parties and their attorney concerning financial arrangement or fees; and

M(2)(c) A copy of any written agreement, or a summary of any oral agreement, by the representative parties or the attorney to share these amounts with any person other than a member, regular associate, or an attorney regularly of counsel with the law firm of the representative parties’ attorney. This statement shall be supplemented promptly if additional arrangements are made.

 

N Statute of limitations. The statute of limitations is tolled for all class members upon the commencement of an action asserting a class action. The statute of limitations resumes running against a member of a class:

N(1) Upon filing of an election of exclusion by such class member;

N(2) Upon entry of an order of certification, or of an amendment thereof, eliminating the class member from the class;

N(3) Except as to representative parties, upon entry of an order under section C of this rule refusing to certify the class as a class action; and

N(4) Upon dismissal of the action without an adjudication on the merits. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/13/80; amended by 1981 c.912 §1; §H amended by CCP 12/8/84; amended by CCP 12/12/92; §F amended by CCP 12/10/94; §N amended by CCP 12/9/00; §§F,M amended by 2003 c.576 §§173,259; §§F,N amended by CCP 12/9/06; §K deleted and §§L,M,N,O redesignated and amended by 2009 c.552 §§1 to 5]

 

INTERVENTION

RULE 33

 

A Definition. Intervention takes place when a third person is permitted to become a party to an action between other persons, either by joining the plaintiff in claiming what is sought by the complaint, by uniting with the defendant in resisting the claims of the plaintiff, or by demanding something adversely to both the plaintiff and defendant.

 

B Intervention of right. At any time before trial, any person shall be permitted to intervene in an action when a statute of this state, these rules, or the common law, confers an unconditional right to intervene.

 

C Permissive intervention. At any time before trial, any person who has an interest in the matter in litigation may, by leave of court, intervene. In exercising its discretion, the court shall consider whether the intervention will unduly delay or prejudice the adjudication of the rights of the original parties.

 

D Procedure. A person desiring to intervene shall serve a motion to intervene upon the parties as provided in Rule 9. The motion shall state the grounds therefor and shall be accompanied by a pleading setting forth the claim or defense for which intervention is sought. If the court allows the intervention, parties shall, within 10 days, file those responsive pleadings which are permitted or required by these rules for such pleading. [CCP 12/2/78; §B amended by 1979 c.284 §21]

 

SUBSTITUTION OF PARTIES

RULE 34

 

A Nonabatement of action by death, disability, or transfer. No action shall abate by the death or disability of a party, or by the transfer of any interest therein, if the claim survives or continues.

 

B Death of a party; continued proceedings. In case of the death of a party, the court shall, on motion, allow the action to be continued:

B(1) By such party’s personal representative or successors in interest at any time within one year after such party’s death; or

B(2) Against such party’s personal representative or successors in interest unless the personal representative or successors in interest mail or deliver notice including the information required by ORS 115.003 (3) to the claimant or to the claimant’s attorney if the claimant is known to be represented, and the claimant or his attorney fails to move the court to substitute the personal representative or successors in interest within 30 days of mailing or delivery.

 

C Disability of a party; continued proceedings. In case of the disability of a party, the court may, at any time within one year thereafter, on motion, allow the action to be continued by or against the party’s guardian or conservator or successors in interest.

 

D Death of a party; surviving parties. In the event of the death of one or more of the plaintiffs or of one or more of the defendants in an action in which the right sought to be enforced survives only to the surviving plaintiffs or only against the surviving defendants, the action does not abate. The death shall be shown upon the record by a written statement of a party signed in conformance with Rule 17 and the action shall proceed in favor of or against the surviving parties.

 

E Transfer of interest. In case of any transfer of interest, the action may be continued by or against the original party, unless the court upon motion directs the person to whom the interest is transferred to be substituted in the action or joined with the original party.

 

F Public officers; death or separation from office.

F(1) When a public officer is a party to an action in such officer’s official capacity and during its pendency dies, resigns, or otherwise ceases to hold office, the action does not abate and such officer’s successor is automatically substituted as a party. Proceedings following the substitution shall be in the name of the substituted party, but any misnomer not affecting the substantial rights of the parties shall be disregarded. An order of substitution may be entered at any time, but the omission to enter such an order shall not affect the substitution.

F(2) When a public officer sues or is sued in such officer’s official capacity, such officer may be described as a party by official title rather than by name; but the court may require such officer’s name to be added.

 

G Procedure. The motion for substitution may be made by any party, or by the successors in interest or representatives of the deceased party or the party with a disability, or the successors in interest of the transferor and shall be served on the parties as provided in Rule 9 and upon persons not parties in the manner provided in Rule 7 for the service of a summons. [CCP 12/2/78; §D amended by 1979 c.284 §22; §B amended by CCP 12/14/02; §G amended by 2007 c.70 §5]

 

RULE 35 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING DISCOVERY

RULE 36

 

A Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: depositions upon oral examination or written questions; production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property, for inspection and other purposes; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission.

 

B Scope of discovery. Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with these rules, the scope of discovery is as follows:

B(1) In general. For all forms of discovery, parties may inquire regarding any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the claim or defense of the party seeking discovery or to the claim or defense of any other party, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any books, documents, or other tangible things, and the identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter. It is not ground for objection that the information sought will be inadmissible at the trial if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.

B(2) Insurance agreements or policies.

B(2)(a) A party, upon the request of an adverse party, shall disclose:

B(2)(a)(i) the existence and contents of any insurance agreement or policy under which a person transacting insurance may be liable to satisfy part or all of a judgment which may be entered in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment; and

B(2)(a)(ii) the existence of any coverage denial or reservation of rights, and identify the provisions in any insurance agreement or policy upon which such coverage denial or reservation of rights is based.

B(2)(b) The obligation to disclose under this subsection shall be performed as soon as practicable following the filing of the complaint and the request to disclose. The court may supervise the exercise of disclosure to the extent necessary to insure that it proceeds properly and expeditiously. However, the court may limit the extent of disclosure under this subsection as provided in section C of this rule.

B(2)(c) Information concerning the insurance agreement or policy is not by reason of disclosure admissible in evidence at trial. For purposes of this subsection, an application for insurance shall not be treated as part of an insurance agreement or policy.

B(2)(d) As used in this subsection, “disclose” means to afford the adverse party an opportunity to inspect or copy the insurance agreement or policy.

B(3) Trial preparation materials. Subject to the provisions of Rule 44, a party may obtain discovery of documents and tangible things otherwise discoverable under subsection B(1) of this rule and prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that other party’s representative (including an attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer, or agent) only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials in the preparation of such party’s case and is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the required showing has been made, the court shall protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning the litigation.

A party may obtain, without the required showing, a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request, a person who is not a party may obtain, without the required showing, a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person or party requesting the statement may move for a court order. The provisions of Rule 46 A(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion. For purposes of this subsection, a statement previously made is (a) a written statement signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the person making it, or (b) a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.

 

C Court order limiting extent of disclosure. Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) that the discovery not be had; (2) that the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) that the discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected by the party seeking discovery; (4) that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of the discovery be limited to certain matters; (5) that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court; (6) that a deposition after being sealed be opened only by order of the court; (7) that a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be disclosed or be disclosed only in a designated way; (8) that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court; or (9) that to prevent hardship the party requesting discovery pay to the other party reasonable expenses incurred in attending the deposition or otherwise responding to the request for discovery.

If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may, on such terms and conditions as are just, order that any party or person provide or permit discovery. The provisions of Rule 46 A(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion. [CCP 12/2/78; §B amended by 1979 c.284 §23; §B(3) amended by CCP 12/13/80; §B amended by CCP 12/11/10]

 

PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY OR EVIDENCE BEFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL

RULE 37

 

A Before action.

A(1) Petition. A person who desires to perpetuate testimony or to obtain discovery to perpetuate evidence under Rule 43 or Rule 44 regarding any matter that may be cognizable in any court of this state may file a petition in the circuit court in the county of such person’s residence or the residence of any expected adverse party. The petition shall be entitled in the name of the petitioner and shall show: (a) that the petitioner, or the petitioner’s personal representatives, heirs, beneficiaries, successors, or assigns are likely to be a party to an action cognizable in a court of this state and are presently unable to bring such an action or defend it, or that the petitioner has an interest in real property or some easement or franchise therein, about which a controversy may arise, which would be the subject of such action; (b) the subject matter of the expected action and petitioner’s interest therein and a copy, attached to the petition, of any written instrument the validity or construction of which may be called into question or which is connected with the subject matter of the expected action; (c) the facts which petitioner desires to establish by the proposed testimony or other discovery and petitioner’s reasons for desiring to perpetuate; (d) the names or a description of the persons petitioner expects will be adverse parties and their addresses so far as one is known; and, (e) the names and addresses of the parties to be examined or from whom discovery is sought and the substance of the testimony or other discovery which petitioner expects to elicit and obtain from each. The petition shall name persons to be examined and ask for an order authorizing the petitioner to take their depositions for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony, or shall name persons in the petition from whom discovery is sought and shall ask for an order allowing discovery under Rule 43 or Rule 44 from such persons for the purpose of preserving evidence.

A(2) Notice and service. The petitioner shall thereafter serve a notice upon each person named in the petition as an expected adverse party, together with a copy of the petition, stating that the petitioner will apply to the court at a time and place named therein, for the order described in the petition. The notice shall be served either within or without the state in the manner provided for service of summons in Rule 7, but if such service cannot with due diligence be made upon any expected adverse party named in the petition, the court may make such order as is just for service by publication or otherwise, and shall appoint, for persons not served with summons in the manner provided in Rule 7, an attorney who shall represent them and whose services shall be paid for by petitioner in an amount fixed by the court, and, in case they are not otherwise represented, shall cross examine the deponent. Testimony and evidence perpetuated under this rule shall be admissible against expected adverse parties not served with notice only in accordance with the applicable rules of evidence. If any expected adverse party is a minor or incompetent, the provisions of Rule 27 apply.

A(3) Order and examination. If the court is satisfied that the perpetuation of the testimony or other discovery to perpetuate evidence may prevent a failure or delay of justice, it shall make an order designating or describing the persons whose depositions may be taken and specifying the subject matter of the examination and whether the depositions shall be taken upon oral examination or written questions; or shall make an order designating or describing the persons from whom discovery may be sought under Rule 43 specifying the objects of such discovery; or shall make an order for a physical or mental examination as provided in Rule 44. Discovery may then be had in accordance with these rules. For the purpose of applying these rules to discovery before action, each reference therein to the court in which the action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in which the petition for such discovery was filed.

 

B Pending appeal. If an appeal has been taken from a judgment of a court to which these rules apply or before the taking of an appeal if the time therefor has not expired, the court in which the judgment was rendered may allow the taking of the depositions of witnesses to perpetuate their testimony or may allow discovery under Rule 43 or Rule 44 for use in the event of further proceedings in such court. In such case the party who desires to perpetuate the testimony or obtain the discovery may make a motion in the court therefor upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action was pending in the circuit court. The motion shall show: (1) the names and addresses of the persons to be examined or from whom other discovery is sought and the substance of the testimony or other discovery which the party expects to elicit from each; and (2) the reasons for perpetuating their testimony or seeking such other discovery. If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony or other discovery is proper to avoid a failure or delay of justice, it may make an order as provided in subsection (3) of section A of this rule and thereupon discovery may be had and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these rules for discovery in actions pending in the circuit court.

 

C Perpetuation by action. This rule does not limit the power of a court to entertain an action to perpetuate testimony.

 

D Filing of depositions. Depositions taken under this rule shall be filed with the court in which the petition is filed or the motion is made. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

PERSONS WHO MAY ADMINISTER OATHS FOR DEPOSITIONS; FOREIGN DEPOSITIONS

RULE 38

 

A Within Oregon.

A(1) Within this state, depositions shall be preceded by an oath or affirmation administered to the deponent by an officer authorized to administer oaths by the laws of this state or by a person specially appointed by the court in which the action is pending. A person so appointed has the power to administer oaths for the purpose of the deposition.

A(2) For purposes of this rule, a deposition taken pursuant to Rule 39 C(7) is taken within this state if either the deponent or the person administering the oath is located in this state.

 

B Outside the state. Within another state, or within a territory or insular possession subject to the dominion of the United States, or in a foreign country, depositions may be taken: (1) on notice before a person authorized to administer oaths in the place in which the examination is held, either by the law thereof or by the law of the United States; (2) before a person appointed or commissioned by the court in which the action is pending, and such a person shall have the power by virtue of such person’s appointment or commission to administer any necessary oath and take testimony; or (3) pursuant to a letter rogatory. A commission or letter rogatory shall be issued on application and notice and on terms that are just and appropriate. It is not requisite to the issuance of a commission or a letter rogatory that the taking of the deposition in any other manner is impracticable or inconvenient; and both a commission and a letter rogatory may be issued in proper cases. A notice or commission may designate the person before whom the deposition is to be taken either by name or descriptive title. A letter rogatory may be addressed “To the Appropriate Authority in (here name the state, territory, or country).” Evidence obtained in a foreign country in response to a letter rogatory need not be excluded merely for the reason that it is not a verbatim transcript or that the testimony was not taken under oath or for any similar departure from the requirements for depositions taken within the United States under these rules.

 

C Foreign depositions and subpoenas.

C(1) Definitions. For the purpose of this section:

C(1)(a) “Foreign subpoena” means a subpoena issued under authority of a court of record of any state other than Oregon.

C(1)(b) “State” means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, a federally recognized Indian tribe, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

C(2) Issuance of subpoena.

C(2)(a) To request issuance of a subpoena under this section, a party or attorney shall submit a foreign subpoena to a clerk of court in the county in which discovery is sought to be conducted in this state.

C(2)(b) When a party or attorney submits a foreign subpoena to a clerk of court in this state, the clerk, in accordance with that court’s procedure and requirements, shall assign a case number and promptly issue a subpoena for service upon the person to whom the foreign subpoena is directed. If a party to an out-of-state proceeding retains an attorney licensed to practice in this state, that attorney may assist the clerk in drafting the subpoena.

C(2)(c) A subpoena under this subsection shall:

(i) Conform to the requirements of these Oregon Rules of Civil Procedure, including Rule 55, and conform substantially to the form provided in Rule 55 A but may otherwise incorporate the terms used in the foreign subpoena as long as those terms conform to these rules; and

(ii) Contain or be accompanied by the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of all counsel of record in the proceeding to which the subpoena relates and of any party not represented by counsel.

C(3) Service of subpoena. A subpoena issued by a clerk of court under subsection (2) of this section shall be served in compliance with Rule 55.

C(4) Effects of request for subpoena. A request for issuance of a subpoena under this section does not constitute an appearance in the court. A request does allow the court to impose sanctions for any action in connection with the subpoena that is a violation of applicable law.

C(5) Motions. A motion to the court, or a response thereto, for a protective order or to enforce, quash, or modify a subpoena issued by a clerk of court pursuant to this section is an appearance before the court and shall comply with the rules and statutes of this state. The motion shall be submitted to the court in the county in which discovery is to be conducted.

C(6) Uniformity of application and construction. In applying and construing this section, consideration shall be given to the need to promote the uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §24; §A amended by CCP 12/12/92; §§B,C amended by CCP 12/11/10; §C amended by 2013 c.1 §2]

 

DEPOSITIONS UPON ORAL EXAMINATION

RULE 39

 

A When deposition may be taken. After the service of summons or the appearance of the defendant in any action, or in a special proceeding at any time after a question of fact has arisen, any party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon oral examination. Leave of court, with or without notice, must be obtained only if the plaintiff seeks to take a deposition prior to the expiration of the period of time specified in Rule 7 to appear and answer after service of summons on any defendant, except that leave is not required (1) if a defendant has served a notice of taking deposition or otherwise sought discovery, or (2) a special notice is given as provided in subsection C(2) of this Rule. The attendance of a witness may be compelled by subpoena as provided in Rule 55.

 

B Order for deposition or production of prisoner. The deposition of a person confined in a prison or jail may only be taken by leave of court. The deposition shall be taken on such terms as the court prescribes, and the court may order that the deposition be taken at the place of confinement or, when the prisoner is confined in this state, may order temporary removal and production of the prisoner for purposes of the deposition.

 

C Notice of examination.

C(1) General requirements. A party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon oral examination shall give reasonable notice in writing to every other party to the action. The notice shall state the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined, if known, and, if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify such person or the particular class or group to which such person belongs. If a subpoena duces tecum is to be served on the person to be examined, the designation of the materials to be produced as set forth in the subpoena shall be attached to or included in the notice.

C(2) Special notice. Leave of court is not required for the taking of a deposition by plaintiff if the notice (a) states that the person to be examined is about to go out of the state, or is bound on a voyage to sea, and will be unavailable for examination unless the deposition is taken before the expiration of the period of time specified in Rule 7 to appear and answer after service of summons on any defendant, and (b) sets forth facts to support the statement. The plaintiff’s attorney shall sign the notice, and such signature constitutes a certification by the attorney that to the best of such attorney’s knowledge, information, and belief the statement and supporting facts are true.

If a party shows that when served with notice under this subsection, the party was unable through the exercise of diligence to obtain counsel to represent such party at the taking of the deposition, the deposition may not be used against such party.

C(3) Shorter or longer time. The court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time for taking the deposition.

C(4) Non-stenographic recording. The notice of deposition required under subsection (1) of this section may provide that the testimony will be recorded by other than stenographic means, in which event the notice shall designate the manner of recording and preserving the deposition. A court may require that the deposition be taken by stenographic means if necessary to assure that the recording be accurate.

C(5) Production of documents and things. The notice to a party deponent may be accompanied by a request made in compliance with Rule 43 for the production of documents and tangible things at the taking of the deposition. The procedures of Rule 43 shall apply to the request.

C(6) Deposition of organization. A party may in the notice and in a subpoena name as the deponent a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency and describe with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. In that event, the organization so named shall provide notice of no fewer than three (3) days before the scheduled deposition, absent good cause or agreement of the parties and the deponent, designating the name(s) of one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on its behalf and setting forth, for each person designated, the matters on which such person will testify. A subpoena shall advise a nonparty organization of its duty to make such a designation. The persons so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization. This subsection does not preclude taking a deposition by any other procedure authorized in these rules.

C(7) Deposition by telephone. Parties may agree by stipulation or the court may order that testimony at a deposition be taken by telephone. If testimony at a deposition is taken by telephone pursuant to court order, the order shall designate the conditions of taking testimony, the manner of recording the deposition, and may include other provisions to assure that the recorded testimony will be accurate and trustworthy. If testimony at a deposition is taken by telephone other than pursuant to court order or stipulation made a part of the record, then objections as to the taking of testimony by telephone, the manner of giving the oath or affirmation, and the manner of recording the deposition are waived unless seasonable objection thereto is made at the taking of the deposition. The oath or affirmation may be administered to the deponent, either in the presence of the person administering the oath or over the telephone, at the election of the party taking the deposition.

 

D Examination; record; oath; objections.

D(1) Examination; cross-examination; oath. Examination and cross-examination of deponents may proceed as permitted at trial. The person described in Rule 38 shall put the deponent on oath.

D(2) Record of examination. The testimony of the deponent shall be recorded either stenographically or as provided in subsection C(4) of this rule. If testimony is recorded pursuant to subsection C(4) of this rule, the party taking the deposition shall retain the original recording without alteration, unless the recording is filed with the court pursuant to subsection G(2) of this rule, until final disposition of the action. Upon request of a party or deponent and payment of the reasonable charges therefor, the testimony shall be transcribed.

D(3) Objections. All objections made at the time of the examination shall be noted on the record. A party or deponent shall state objections concisely and in a non-argumentative and non-suggestive manner. Evidence shall be taken subject to the objection, except that a party may instruct a deponent not to answer a question, and a deponent may decline to answer a question, only:

(a) when necessary to present or preserve a motion under section E of this rule;

(b) to enforce a limitation on examination ordered by the court; or

(c) to preserve a privilege or constitutional or statutory right.

D(4) Written questions as alternative. In lieu of participating in an oral examination, parties may serve written questions on the party taking the deposition who shall propound them to the deponent on the record.

 

E Motion for court assistance; expenses.

E(1) Motion for court assistance. At any time during the taking of a deposition, upon motion and a showing by a party or a deponent that the deposition is being conducted or hindered in bad faith, or in a manner not consistent with these rules, or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or any party, the court may order the officer conducting the examination to cease forthwith from taking the deposition, or may limit the scope or manner of the taking of the deposition as provided in section C of Rule 36. The motion shall be presented to the court in which the action is pending, except that non-party deponents may present the motion to the court in which the action is pending or the court at the place of examination. If the order terminates the examination, it shall be resumed thereafter only on order of the court in which the action is pending. Upon demand of the moving party or deponent, the parties shall suspend the taking of the deposition for the time necessary to make a motion under this subsection.

E(2) Allowance of expenses. Subsection A(4) of Rule 46 shall apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to a motion under this section.

 

F Submission to witness; changes; statement.

F(1) Necessity of submission to witness for examination. When the testimony is taken by stenographic means, or is recorded by other than stenographic means as provided in subsection C(4) of this rule, and if any party or the witness so requests at the time the deposition is taken, the recording or transcription shall be submitted to the witness for examination, changes, if any, and statement of correctness. With leave of court such request may be made by a party or witness at any time before trial.

F(2) Procedure after examination. Any changes which the witness desires to make shall be entered upon the transcription or stated in a writing to accompany the recording by the party taking the deposition, together with a statement of the reasons given by the witness for making them. Notice of such changes and reasons shall promptly be served upon all parties by the party taking the deposition. The witness shall then state in writing that the transcription or recording is correct subject to the changes, if any, made by the witness, unless the parties waive the statement or the witness is physically unable to make such statement or cannot be found. If the statement is not made by the witness within 30 days, or within a lesser time upon court order, after the deposition is submitted to the witness, the party taking the deposition shall state on the transcription or in a writing to accompany the recording the fact of waiver, or the physical incapacity or absence of the witness, or the fact of refusal of the witness to make the statement, together with the reasons, if any, given therefor; and the deposition may then be used as fully as though the statement had been made unless, on a motion to suppress under Rule 41 D, the court finds that the reasons given for the refusal to make the statement require rejection of the deposition in whole or in part.

F(3) No request for examination. If no examination by the witness is requested, no statement by the witness as to the correctness of the transcription or recording is required.

 

G Certification; filing; exhibits; copies.

G(1) Certification. When a deposition is stenographically taken, the stenographic reporter shall certify, under oath, on the transcript that the witness was duly sworn and that the transcript is a true record of the testimony given by the witness. When a deposition is recorded by other than stenographic means as provided in subsection C(4) of this rule, and thereafter transcribed, the person transcribing it shall certify, under oath, on the transcript that such person heard the witness sworn on the recording and that the transcript is a correct transcription of the recording. When a recording or a non-stenographic deposition or a transcription of such recording or non-stenographic deposition is to be used at any proceeding in the action or is filed with the court, the party taking the deposition, or such party’s attorney, shall certify under oath that the recording, either filed or furnished to the person making the transcription, is a true, complete, and accurate recording of the deposition of the witness and that the recording has not been altered.

G(2) Filing. If requested by any party, the transcript or the recording of the deposition shall be filed with the court where the action is pending. When a deposition is stenographically taken, the stenographic reporter or, in the case of a deposition taken pursuant to subsection C(4) of this rule, the party taking the deposition shall enclose it in a sealed envelope, directed to the clerk of the court or the justice of the peace before whom the action is pending or such other person as may by writing be agreed upon, and deliver or forward it accordingly by mail or other usual channel of conveyance. If a recording of a deposition has been filed with the court, it may be transcribed upon request of any party under such terms and conditions as the court may direct.

G(3) Exhibits. Documents and things produced for inspection during the examination of the witness shall, upon the request of a party, be marked for identification and annexed to and returned with the deposition, and may be inspected and copied by any party. Whenever the person producing materials desires to retain the originals, such person may substitute copies of the originals, or afford each party an opportunity to make copies thereof. In the event the original materials are retained by the person producing them, they shall be marked for identification and the person producing them shall afford each party the subsequent opportunity to compare any copy with the original. The person producing the materials shall also be required to retain the original materials for subsequent use in any proceeding in the same action. Any party may move for an order that the original be annexed to and returned with the deposition to the court, pending final disposition of the case.

G(4) Copies. Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the stenographic reporter or, in the case of a deposition taken pursuant to subsection C(4) of this rule, the party taking the deposition shall furnish a copy of the deposition to any party or to the deponent.

 

H Payment of expenses upon failure to appear.

H(1) Failure of party to attend. If the party giving the notice of the taking of the deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another party attends in person or by attorney pursuant to the notice, the court in which the action is pending may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred by such other party and the attorney for such other party in so attending, including reasonable attorney’s fees.

H(2) Failure of witness to attend. If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition of a witness fails to serve a subpoena upon the witness and the witness because of such failure does not attend, and if another party attends in person or by attorney because the attending party expects the deposition of that witness to be taken, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred by such other party and the attorney for such other party in so attending, including reasonable attorney’s fees.

 

I Perpetuation of testimony after commencement of action.

I(1) After commencement of any action, any party wishing to perpetuate the testimony of a witness for the purpose of trial or hearing may do so by serving a perpetuation deposition notice.

I(2) The notice is subject to subsections C(1) through (7) of this rule and shall additionally state:

I(2)(a) A brief description of the subject areas of testimony of the witness; and

I(2)(b) The manner of recording the deposition.

I(3) Prior to the time set for the deposition, any other party may object to the perpetuation deposition. Such objection shall be governed by the standards of Rule 36 C. At any hearing on such an objection, the burden shall be on the party seeking perpetuation to show that: (a) the witness may be unavailable as defined in ORS 40.465 (1)(d) or (e) or 45.250 (2)(a) through (c); or (b) it would be an undue hardship on the witness to appear at the trial or hearing; or (c) other good cause exists for allowing the perpetuation. If no objection is filed, or if perpetuation is allowed, the testimony taken shall be admissible at any subsequent trial or hearing in the action, subject to the Oregon Evidence Code.

I(4) Any perpetuation deposition shall be taken not less than seven days before the trial or hearing on not less than 14 days’ notice. However, the court in which the action is pending may allow a shorter period for a perpetuation deposition before or during trial upon a showing of good cause.

I(5) To the extent that a discovery deposition is allowed by law, any party may conduct a discovery deposition of the witness prior to the perpetuation deposition.

I(6) The perpetuation examination shall proceed as set forth in section D of this rule. All objections to any testimony or evidence taken at the deposition shall be made at the time and noted upon the record. The court before which the testimony is offered shall rule on any objections before the testimony is offered. Any objections not made at the deposition shall be deemed waived. [CCP 12/2/78; §F amended by 1979 c.284 §25; §F amended by CCP 12/13/80; amended by CCP 12/13/86; amended by 1987 c.275 §2; §I amended by 1989 c.980 §5; §§C,E,G amended by CCP 12/12/92; §I amended by CCP 12/14/96; §§D,E amended by CCP 12/12/98; §C amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

DEPOSITIONS UPON WRITTEN QUESTIONS

RULE 40

 

A Serving questions; notice. Upon stipulation of the parties or leave of court for good cause shown, and after commencement of the action, any party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon written questions. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by the use of subpoena as provided in Rule 55. The deposition of a person confined in prison may be taken only as provided in Rule 39 B.

A party desiring to take a deposition upon written questions shall serve them upon every other party with a notice stating (1) the name and address of the person who is to answer them, if known, and if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify such person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs, and (2) the name or descriptive title and address of the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken. A deposition upon written questions may be taken of a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency in accordance with the provisions of Rule 39 C(6).

Within 30 days after the notice and written questions are served, a party may serve cross questions upon all other parties. Within 10 days after being served with cross questions, a party may serve redirect questions upon all other parties. Within 10 days after being served with redirect questions, a party may serve recross questions upon all other parties. The court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time.

 

B Officer to take responses and prepare record. A copy of the notice and copies of all questions served shall be delivered by the party taking the deposition to the officer designated in the notice, who shall proceed promptly, in the manner provided by Rule 39 D, F, and G, to take the testimony of the witness in response to the questions and to prepare, certify, and file or mail the deposition, attaching thereto the copy of the notice and the questions received by the officer. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/4/82]

 

EFFECT OF ERRORS AND IRREGULARITIES IN DEPOSITIONS

RULE 41

 

A As to notice. All errors and irregularities in the notice for taking a deposition are waived unless written objection is promptly served upon the party giving the notice.

 

B As to disqualification of officer. Objection to taking a deposition because of disqualification of the officer administering the oath is waived unless made before the taking of the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.

 

C As to taking of deposition.

C(1) Objections to the competency of a witness or to the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony are not waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.

C(2) Errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking the deposition, in the form of the questions or answers, in the oath or affirmation, or in the conduct of parties, and errors of any kind which might be obviated, removed, or cured if promptly presented, are waived unless seasonable objection thereto is made at the taking of the deposition.

C(3) Objections to the form of written questions submitted under Rule 40 are waived unless served in writing upon the party propounding them within the time allowed for serving the succeeding cross or other questions and within 20 days after service of the last questions authorized.

 

D As to completion and return of deposition. Errors and irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, sealed, endorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise dealt with under Rules 39 and 40 are waived unless a motion to suppress the deposition or some part thereof is made with reasonable promptness after such defect is, or with due diligence might have been, ascertained. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

RULE 42 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS AND THINGS AND ENTRY UPON LAND FOR INSPECTION AND OTHER PURPOSES

RULE 43

 

A Scope. Any party may serve on any other party a request: (1) to produce and permit the party making the request, or someone acting on behalf of the party making the request, to inspect and copy any designated documents (including electronically stored information, writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, sound recordings, images, and other data or data compilations from which information can be obtained and translated, if necessary, by the respondent through detection devices or software into reasonably usable form) or to inspect and copy, test, or sample any tangible things which constitute or contain matters within the scope of Rule 36 B and which are in the possession, custody, or control of the party upon whom the request is served; or (2) to permit entry upon designated land or other property in the possession or control of the party upon whom the request is served for the purpose of inspection and measuring, surveying, photographing, testing, or sampling the property or any designated object or operation thereon, within the scope of Rule 36 B.

 

B Procedure.

B(1) A party may serve a request on the plaintiff after commencement of the action and on any other party with or after service of the summons on that party. The request shall identify any items requested for inspection, copying, or related acts by individual item or by category described with reasonable particularity, designate any land or other property upon which entry is requested, and shall specify a reasonable place and manner for the inspection, copying, entry, and related acts.

B(2) A request shall not require a defendant to produce or allow inspection, copying, entry, or other related acts before the expiration of 45 days after service of summons, unless the court specifies a shorter time. Otherwise, within 30 days after service of a request in accordance with subsection B(1) of this rule, or such other time as the court may order or the parties may agree upon in writing, a party shall serve a response that includes the following:

B(2)(a) a statement that, except as specifically objected to, any requested item within the party’s possession or custody is provided, or will be provided or made available within the time allowed and at the place and in the manner specified in the request, which items shall be organized and labeled to correspond with the categories in the request;

B(2)(b) as to any requested item not in the party’s possession or custody, a statement that reasonable effort has been made to obtain it, unless specifically objected to, or that no such item is within the party’s control;

B(2)(c) as to any land or other property, a statement that entry will be permitted as requested unless specifically objected to; and

B(2)(d) any objection to a request or a part thereof and the reason for each objection.

B(3) Any objection not stated in accordance with subsection B(2) of this rule is waived. Any objection to only a part of a request shall clearly state the part objected to. An objection does not relieve the requested party of the duty to comply with any request or part thereof not specifically objected to.

B(4) A party served in accordance with subsection B(1) of this rule is under a continuing duty during the pendency of the action to produce promptly any item responsive to the request and not objected to which comes into the party’s possession, custody, or control.

B(5) A party who moves for an order under Rule 46 A(2) regarding any objection or other failure to respond or to permit inspection, copying, entry, or related acts as requested, shall do so within a reasonable time.

 

C Writing called for need not be offered. Though a writing called for by one party is produced by the other, and is inspected by the party calling for it, the party requesting production is not obliged to offer it in evidence.

 

D Persons not parties. A person not a party to the action may be compelled to produce books, papers, documents, or tangible things and to submit to an inspection thereof as provided in Rule 55. This rule does not preclude an independent action against a person not a party for permission to enter upon land.

 

E Electronically stored information. A request for electronically stored information may specify the form in which the information is to be produced by the responding party but, if no such specification is made, the responding party must produce the information in either the form in which it is ordinarily maintained or in a reasonably useful form. [CCP 12/2/78; §A amended by 1979 c.284 §26; §D amended by CCP 12/15/90; §B amended by CCP 12/14/02; §B amended by CCP 12/9/06; §A amended by CCP 12/11/10; §E adopted by CCP 12/11/10]

 

PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION OF PERSONS; REPORTS OF EXAMINATIONS

RULE 44

 

A Order for examination. When the mental or physical condition or the blood relationship of a party, or of an agent, employee, or person in the custody or under the legal control of a party (including the spouse of a party in an action to recover for injury to the spouse), is in controversy, the court may order the party to submit to a physical or mental examination by a physician or a mental examination by a psychologist or to produce for examination the person in such party’s custody or legal control. The order may be made only on motion for good cause shown and upon notice to the person to be examined and to all parties and shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions, and scope of the examination and the person or persons by whom it is to be made.

 

B Report of examining physician or psychologist. If requested by the party against whom an order is made under section A of this rule or the person examined, the party causing the examination to be made shall deliver to the requesting person or party a copy of a detailed report of the examining physician or psychologist setting out such physician’s or psychologist’s findings, including results of all tests made, diagnoses and conclusions, together with like reports of all earlier examinations of the same condition. After delivery the party causing the examination shall be entitled upon request to receive from the party against whom the order is made a like report of any examination, previously or thereafter made, of the same condition, unless, in the case of a report of examination of a person not a party, the party shows inability to obtain it. This section applies to examinations made by agreement of the parties, unless the agreement expressly provides otherwise.

 

C Reports of examinations; claims for damages for injuries. In a civil action where a claim is made for damages for injuries to the party or to a person in the custody or under the legal control of a party, upon the request of the party against whom the claim is pending, the claimant shall deliver to the requesting party a copy of all written reports and existing notations of any examinations relating to injuries for which recovery is sought unless the claimant shows inability to comply.

 

D Report; effect of failure to comply.

D(1) Preparation of written report. If an obligation to furnish a report arises under sections B or C of this rule and the examining physician or psychologist has not made a written report, the party who is obliged to furnish the report shall request that the examining physician or psychologist prepare a written report of the examination, and the party requesting such report shall pay the reasonable costs and expenses, including the examiner’s fee, necessary to prepare such a report.

D(2) Failure to comply or make report or request report. If a party fails to comply with sections B and C of this rule, or if a physician or psychologist fails or refuses to make a detailed report within a reasonable time, or if a party fails to request that the examining physician or psychologist prepare a written report within a reasonable time, the court may require the physician or psychologist to appear for a deposition or may exclude the physician’s or psychologist’s testimony if offered at the trial.

 

E Access to individually identifiable health information. Any party against whom a civil action is filed for compensation or damages for injuries may obtain copies of individually identifiable health information as defined in Rule 55 H within the scope of discovery under Rule 36 B. Individually identifiable health information may be obtained by written patient authorization, by an order of the court, or by subpoena in accordance with Rule 55 H. [CCP 12/2/78; §§A,E amended by c.284 §§27,28; §E amended by CCP 12/4/82; §C amended by CCP 12/13/86; §§C,E amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §§A,B,D amended by 1989 c.1084 §2; §E amended by CCP 12/14/02]

 

REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION

RULE 45

 

A Request for admission. After commencement of an action, a party may serve upon any other party a request for the admission by the latter of the truth of relevant matters within the scope of Rule 36 B specified in the request, including facts or opinions of fact, or the application of law to fact, or of the genuineness of any relevant documents or physical objects described in or exhibited with the request. Copies of documents shall be served with the request unless they have been or are otherwise furnished or made available for inspection and copying. Each matter of which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. The request may, without leave of court, be served upon the plaintiff after commencement of the action and upon any other party with or after service of the summons and complaint upon that party. The request for admissions shall be preceded by the following statement printed in capital letters of the type size in which the request is printed: “FAILURE TO SERVE A WRITTEN ANSWER OR OBJECTION WITHIN THE TIME ALLOWED BY ORCP 45 B WILL RESULT IN ADMISSION OF THE FOLLOWING REQUESTS.”

 

B Response. The matter is admitted unless, within 30 days after service of the request, or within such shorter or longer time as the court may allow, the party to whom the request is directed serves upon the party requesting the admission a written answer or objection addressed to the matter, signed by the party or by the party’s attorney; but, unless the court shortens the time, a defendant shall not be required to serve answers or objections before the expiration of 45 days after service of the summons and complaint upon such defendant. If objection is made, the reasons therefor shall be stated. The answer shall specifically deny the matter or set forth in detail the reasons why the answering party cannot truthfully admit or deny the matter. A denial shall fairly meet the substance of the requested admission, and when good faith requires that a party qualify the answer or deny only a part of the matter of which an admission is requested, the party shall specify so much of it as is true and qualify or deny the remainder. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as a reason for failure to admit or deny unless the answering party states that reasonable inquiry has been made and that the information known or readily obtainable by the answering party is insufficient to enable the answering party to admit or deny. A party who considers that a matter of which an admission has been requested presents a genuine issue for trial may not, on that ground alone, object to the request; the party may, subject to the provisions of Rule 46 C, deny the matter or set forth reasons why the party cannot admit or deny it.

 

C Motion to determine sufficiency. The party who has requested the admissions may move to determine the sufficiency of the answers or objections. Unless the court determines that an objection is justified, it shall order that an answer be served. If the court determines that an answer does not comply with the requirements of this rule, it may order either that the matter is admitted or that an amended answer be served. The court may, in lieu of these orders, determine that final disposition of the request be made at a designated time prior to trial. The provisions of Rule 46 A(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

 

D Effect of admission. Any matter admitted pursuant to this rule is conclusively established unless the court on motion permits withdrawal or amendment of the admission. The court may permit withdrawal or amendment when the presentation of the merits of the case will be subserved thereby and the party who obtained the admission fails to satisfy the court that withdrawal or amendment will prejudice such party in maintaining such party’s case or such party’s defense on the merits. Any admission made by a party pursuant to this rule is for the purpose of the pending action only, and neither constitutes an admission by such party for any other purpose nor may be used against such party in any other action.

 

E Form of response. The request for admissions shall be so arranged that a blank space shall be provided after each separately numbered request. The space shall be reasonably calculated to enable the answering party to insert the admissions, denials, or objections within the space. If sufficient space is not provided, the answering party may attach additional papers with the admissions, denials, or objections and refer to them in the space provided in the request.

 

F Number. A party may serve more than one set of requested admissions upon an adverse party, but the total number of requests shall not exceed 30, unless the court otherwise orders for good cause shown after the proposed additional requests have been filed. In determining what constitutes a request for admission for the purpose of applying this limitation in number, it is intended that each request be counted separately, whether or not it is subsidiary or incidental to or dependent upon or included in another request, and however the requests may be grouped, combined, or arranged. [CCP 12/2/78; §§A,B amended by 1979 c.284 §§29,30]

 

FAILURE TO MAKE DISCOVERY; SANCTIONS

RULE 46

 

A Motion for order compelling discovery. A party, upon reasonable notice to other parties and all persons affected thereby, may apply for an order compelling discovery as follows:

A(1) Appropriate court.

A(1)(a) Parties. An application for an order to a party may be made to the court in which the action is pending, and, on matters relating to a deponent’s failure to answer questions at a deposition, such an application may also be made to a court of competent jurisdiction in the political subdivision where the deponent is located.

A(1)(b) Non-parties. An application for an order to a deponent who is not a party shall be made to a court of competent jurisdiction in the political subdivision where the non-party deponent is located.

A(2) Motion. If a party fails to furnish a report under Rule 44 B or C, or if a deponent fails to answer a question propounded or submitted under Rules 39 or 40, or if a corporation or other entity fails to make a designation under Rule 39 C(6) or Rule 40 A, or if a party fails to respond to a request for a copy of an insurance agreement or policy under Rule 36 B(2), or if a party in response to a request for inspection submitted under Rule 43 fails to permit inspection as requested, the discovering party may move for an order compelling discovery in accordance with the request. Any motion made under this subsection shall set out at the beginning of the motion the items that the moving party seeks to discover. When taking a deposition on oral examination, the proponent of the question may complete or adjourn the examination before applying for an order.

If the court denies the motion in whole or in part, it may make such protective order as it would have been empowered to make on a motion made pursuant to Rule 36 C.

A(3) Evasive or incomplete answer. For purposes of this section, an evasive or incomplete answer is to be treated as a failure to answer.

A(4) Award of expenses of motion. If the motion is granted, the court may, after opportunity for hearing, require the party or deponent whose conduct necessitated the motion or the party or attorney advising such conduct or both of them to pay to the moving party the reasonable expenses incurred in obtaining the order, including attorney’s fees, unless the court finds that the opposition to the motion was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

If the motion is denied, the court may, after opportunity for hearing, require the moving party or the attorney advising the motion or both of them to pay to the party or deponent who opposed the motion the reasonable expenses incurred in opposing the motion, including attorney’s fees, unless the court finds that the making of the motion was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

If the motion is granted in part and denied in part, the court may apportion the reasonable expenses incurred in relation to the motion among the parties and persons in a just manner.

B Failure to comply with order.

B(1) Sanctions by court in the county where the deponent is located. If a deponent fails to be sworn or to answer a question after being directed to do so by a circuit court judge in the county in which the deponent is located, the failure may be considered a contempt of court.

B(2) Sanctions by court in which action is pending. If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent or a person designated under Rule 39 C(6) or 40 A to testify on behalf of a party fails to obey an order to provide or permit discovery, including an order made under section A of this rule or Rule 44, the court in which the action is pending may make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, including among others, the following:

B(2)(a) An order that the matters regarding which the order was made or any other designated facts shall be taken to be established for the purposes of the action in accordance with the claim of the party obtaining the order;

B(2)(b) An order refusing to allow the disobedient party to support or oppose designated claims or defenses, or prohibiting the disobedient party from introducing designated matters in evidence;

B(2)(c) An order striking out pleadings or parts thereof, or staying further proceedings until the order is obeyed, or dismissing the action or any part thereof, or rendering a judgment by default against the disobedient party;

B(2)(d) In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto, an order treating as a contempt of court the failure to obey any order except an order to submit to a physical or mental examination.

B(2)(e) Such orders as are listed in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this subsection, where a party has failed to comply with an order under Rule 44 A requiring the party to produce another for examination, unless the party failing to comply shows inability to produce such person for examination.

B(3) Payment of expenses. In lieu of any order listed in subsection (2) of this section or in addition thereto, the court shall require the party failing to obey the order or the attorney advising such party or both to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney’s fees, caused by the failure, unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

 

C Expenses on failure to admit. If a party fails to admit the genuineness of any document or the truth of any matter, as requested under Rule 45, and if the party requesting the admissions thereafter proves the genuineness of the document or the truth of the matter, the party requesting the admissions may apply to the court for an order requiring the other party to pay the party requesting the admissions the reasonable expenses incurred in making that proof, including reasonable attorney’s fees. The court shall make the order unless it finds that (1) the request was held objectionable pursuant to Rule 45 B or C, or (2) the admission sought was of no substantial importance, or (3) the party failing to admit had reasonable ground to believe that such party might prevail on the matter, or (4) there was other good reason for the failure to admit.

 

D Failure of party to attend at own deposition or respond to request for inspection or to inform of question regarding the existence of coverage of liability insurance policy. If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party or a person designated under Rule 39 C(6) or 40 A to testify on behalf of a party fails (1) to appear before the officer who is to take the deposition of that party or person, after being served with a proper notice, or (2) to comply with or serve objections to a request for production and inspection submitted under Rule 43, after proper service of the request, the court in which the action is pending on motion may make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, including among others it may take any action authorized under subsection B(2)(a), (b), and (c) of this rule. In lieu of any order or in addition thereto, the court shall require the party failing to act or the attorney advising such party or both to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney’s fees, caused by the failure, unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

The failure to act described in this section may not be excused on the ground that the discovery sought is objectionable unless the party failing to act has applied for a protective order as provided by Rule 36 C. [CCP 12/2/78; §§A(2),D amended by CCP 12/13/80; §§A,B amended by CCP 12/12/92; §B amended by 1999 c.59 §4; §A amended by CCP 12/11/04]

 

SUMMARY JUDGMENT

RULE 47

 

A For claimant. A party seeking to recover upon a claim, counterclaim, or cross-claim or to obtain a declaratory judgment may, at any time after the expiration of 20 days from the commencement of the action or after service of a motion for summary judgment by the adverse party, move, with or without supporting affidavits or declarations, for a summary judgment in that party’s favor upon all or any part thereof.

 

B For defending party. A party against whom a claim, counterclaim, or cross-claim is asserted or a declaratory judgment is sought may, at any time, move, with or without supporting affidavits or declarations, for a summary judgment in that party’s favor as to all or any part thereof.

 

C Motion and proceedings thereon. The motion and all supporting documents shall be served and filed at least 60 days before the date set for trial. The adverse party shall have 20 days in which to serve and file opposing affidavits or declarations and supporting documents. The moving party shall have five days to reply. The court shall have discretion to modify these stated times. The court shall grant the motion if the pleadings, depositions, affidavits, declarations and admissions on file show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to prevail as a matter of law. No genuine issue as to a material fact exists if, based upon the record before the court viewed in a manner most favorable to the adverse party, no objectively reasonable juror could return a verdict for the adverse party on the matter that is the subject of the motion for summary judgment. The adverse party has the burden of producing evidence on any issue raised in the motion as to which the adverse party would have the burden of persuasion at trial. The adverse party may satisfy the burden of producing evidence with an affidavit or a declaration under section E of this rule. A summary judgment, interlocutory in character, may be rendered on the issue of liability alone although there is a genuine issue as to the amount of damages.

 

D Form of affidavits and declarations; defense required. Except as provided by section E of this rule, supporting and opposing affidavits and declarations shall be made on personal knowledge, shall set forth such facts as would be admissible in evidence, and shall show affirmatively that the affiant or declarant is competent to testify to the matters stated therein. Sworn or certified copies of all papers or parts thereof referred to in an affidavit or a declaration shall be attached thereto or served therewith. The court may permit affidavits or declarations to be supplemented or opposed by depositions or further affidavits or declarations. When a motion for summary judgment is made and supported as provided in this rule an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of that party’s pleading, but the adverse party’s response, by affidavits, declarations or as otherwise provided in this section, must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue as to any material fact for trial. If the adverse party does not so respond, the court shall grant the motion if appropriate.

 

E Affidavit or declaration of attorney when expert opinion required. Motions under this rule are not designed to be used as discovery devices to obtain the names of potential expert witnesses or to obtain their facts or opinions. If a party, in opposing a motion for summary judgment, is required to provide the opinion of an expert to establish a genuine issue of material fact, an affidavit or a declaration of the party’s attorney stating that an unnamed qualified expert has been retained who is available and willing to testify to admissible facts or opinions creating a question of fact, will be deemed sufficient to controvert the allegations of the moving party and an adequate basis for the court to deny the motion. The affidavit or declaration shall be made in good faith based on admissible facts or opinions obtained from a qualified expert who has actually been retained by the attorney who is available and willing to testify and who has actually rendered an opinion or provided facts which, if revealed by affidavit or declaration, would be a sufficient basis for denying the motion for summary judgment.

 

F When affidavits or declarations are unavailable. Should it appear from the affidavits or declarations of a party opposing the motion that such party cannot, for reasons stated, present by affidavit or declaration facts essential to justify the opposition of that party, the court may deny the motion or may order a continuance to permit affidavits or declarations to be obtained or depositions to be taken or discovery to be had, or may make such other order as is just.

 

G Affidavits or declarations made in bad faith. Should it appear to the satisfaction of the court at any time that any of the affidavits or declarations presented pursuant to this rule are presented in bad faith or solely for the purpose of delay, the court shall forthwith order the party employing them to pay to the other party the amount of the reasonable expenses which the filing of the affidavits or declarations caused the other party to incur, including reasonable attorney fees, and any offending party or attorney may be subject to sanctions for contempt.

 

H Multiple parties or claims; limited judgment. If the court grants summary judgment for less than all parties and claims in an action, a limited judgment may be entered if the court makes the determination required by Rule 67 B. [CCP 12/2/78; §D amended by 1979 c.284 §31; §G amended by 1981 c.898 §6; amended by CCP 12/4/82; §C amended by CCP 12/8/84; §G amended by 1991 c.724 §30; §C amended by 1995 c.618 §5; §C amended by 1999 c.815 §1; amended by 2003 c.194 §9; §C amended by CCP 12/14/02; §H amended by 2003 c.576 §260; §§C,D,F amended by 2007 c.339 §§15,16,17]

 

RULES 48 and 49 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

JURY TRIAL

RULE 50

 

Jury trial of right. The right of trial by jury as declared by the Oregon Constitution or as given by a statute shall be preserved to the parties inviolate. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

ISSUES; TRIAL BY JURY OR BY THE COURT

RULE 51

 

A Issues. Issues arise upon the pleadings when a fact or conclusion of law is maintained by one party and controverted by the other.

 

B Issues of law; how tried. An issue of law shall be tried by the court.

 

C Issues of fact; how tried. The trial of all issues of fact shall be by jury unless:

C(1) The parties or their attorneys of record, by written stipulation filed with the court or by an oral stipulation made in open court and entered in the record, consent to trial without a jury; or

C(2) The court, upon motion of a party or on its own initiative, finds that a right of trial by jury of some or all of those issues does not exist under the Constitution or statutes of this state.

 

D Advisory jury and jury trial by consent. In all actions not triable by right to a jury, the court, upon motion of a party or on its own initiative, may try an issue with an advisory jury or it may, with the consent of all parties, order a trial to a jury whose verdict shall have the same effect as if trial to a jury had been a matter of right. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

POSTPONEMENT OF CASES

RULE 52

 

A Postponement. When a cause is set and called for trial, it shall be tried or dismissed, unless good cause is shown for a postponement. At its discretion, the court may grant a postponement, with or without terms, including requiring any party whose conduct made the postponement necessary to pay expenses incurred by an opposing party.

 

B Absence of evidence. If a motion is made for postponement on the grounds of absence of evidence, the court may require the moving party to submit an affidavit or a declaration stating the evidence which the moving party expects to obtain. If the adverse party admits that such evidence would be given and that it be considered as actually given at trial, or offered and overruled as improper, the trial shall not be postponed. However, the court may postpone the trial if, after the adverse party makes the admission described in this section, the moving party can show that such affidavit or declaration does not constitute an adequate substitute for the absent evidence. The court, when it allows the motion, may impose such conditions or terms upon the moving party as may be just. [CCP 12/2/78; §A amended by CCP 12/13/80 and 12/14/96; §B amended by 2003 c.194 §10]

 

CONSOLIDATION; SEPARATE TRIALS

RULE 53

 

A Joint hearing or trial; consolidation of actions. Upon motion of any party, when more than one action involving a common question of law or fact is pending before the court, the court may order a joint hearing or trial of any or all of the matters in issue in such actions; the court may order all such actions consolidated; and it may make such orders concerning proceedings therein as may tend to avoid unnecessary costs or delay.

 

B Separate trials. The court, in furtherance of convenience or to avoid prejudice, or when separate trials will be conducive to expedition and economy, may order a separate trial of any claim, cross-claim, counterclaim, or of any separate issue or of any number of claims, cross-claims, counterclaims, or issues, always preserving inviolate the right of trial by jury as declared by the Oregon Constitution or as given by statute. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS; COMPROMISE

RULE 54

 

A Voluntary dismissal; effect thereof.

A(1) By plaintiff; by stipulation. Subject to the provisions of Rule 32 D and of any statute of this state, a plaintiff may dismiss an action in its entirety or as to one or more defendants without order of court: (a) by filing a notice of dismissal with the court and serving such notice on all other parties not in default not less than five days prior to the day of trial if no counterclaim has been pleaded, or (b) by filing a stipulation of dismissal signed by all adverse parties who have appeared in the action. Unless otherwise stated in the notice of dismissal or stipulation, the dismissal is without prejudice, except that a notice of dismissal operates as an adjudication upon the merits when filed by a plaintiff who has once dismissed in any court of the United States or of any state an action against the same parties on or including the same claim unless the court directs that the dismissal shall be without prejudice. Upon notice of dismissal or stipulation under this subsection, a party shall submit a form of judgment and the court shall enter a judgment of dismissal.

A(2) By order of court. Except as provided in subsection (1) of this section, an action shall not be dismissed at the plaintiff’s instance save upon judgment of dismissal ordered by the court and upon such terms and conditions as the court deems proper. If a counterclaim has been pleaded by a defendant prior to the service upon the defendant of the plaintiff’s motion to dismiss, the defendant may proceed with the counterclaim. Unless otherwise specified in the judgment of dismissal, a dismissal under this subsection is without prejudice.

A(3) Costs and disbursements. When an action is dismissed under this section, the judgment may include any costs and disbursements, including attorney fees, provided by contract, statute, or rule. Unless the circumstances indicate otherwise, the dismissed party shall be considered the prevailing party.

 

B Involuntary dismissal.

B(1) Failure to comply with rule or order. For failure of the plaintiff to prosecute or to comply with these rules or any order of court, a defendant may move for a judgment of dismissal of an action or of any claim against such defendant.

B(2) Insufficiency of evidence. After the plaintiff in an action tried by the court without a jury has completed the presentation of plaintiff’s evidence, the defendant, without waiving the right to offer evidence in the event the motion is not granted, may move for a judgment of dismissal on the ground that upon the facts and the law the plaintiff has shown no right to relief. The court as trier of the facts may then determine them and render judgment of dismissal against the plaintiff or may decline to render any judgment until the close of all the evidence. If the court renders judgment of dismissal with prejudice against the plaintiff, the court shall make findings as provided in Rule 62.

B(3) Dismissal for want of prosecution; notice. Not less than 60 days prior to the first regular motion day in each calendar year, unless the court has sent an earlier notice on its own initiative, the clerk of the court shall mail notice to the attorneys of record in each pending case in which no action has been taken for one year immediately prior to the mailing of such notice that a judgment of dismissal will be entered in each such case by the court for want of prosecution unless, on or before such first regular motion day, application, either oral or written, is made to the court and good cause shown why it should be continued as a pending case. If such application is not made or good cause shown, the court shall enter a judgment of dismissal in each such case. Nothing contained in this subsection shall prevent the dismissal by the court at any time for want of prosecution of any action upon motion of any party thereto.

B(4) Effect of judgment of dismissal. Unless the court in its judgment of dismissal otherwise specifies, a dismissal under this section operates as an adjudication without prejudice.

 

C Dismissal of counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim. The provisions of this rule apply to the dismissal of any counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim.

 

D Costs of previously dismissed action.

D(1) If a plaintiff who has once dismissed an action in any court commences an action based upon or including the same claim against the same defendant, the court may make such order for the payment of any unpaid judgment for costs and disbursements against plaintiff in the action previously dismissed as it may deem proper and may stay the proceedings in the action until the plaintiff has complied with the order.

D(2) If a party who previously asserted a claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim that was dismissed with prejudice subsequently files the same claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim against the same party, the court shall enter a judgment dismissing the claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim and may enter a judgment requiring the payment of reasonable attorney fees incurred by the party in obtaining the dismissal.

 

E Offer to allow judgment; effect of acceptance or rejection.

E(1) Except as provided in ORS 17.065 through 17.085, any party against whom a claim is asserted may, at any time up to 14 days prior to trial, serve upon any other party asserting the claim an offer to allow judgment to be entered against the party making the offer for the sum, or the property, or to the effect therein specified. The offer shall not be filed with the court clerk or provided to any assigned judge, except as set forth in subsections E(2) and E(3) below.

E(2) If the party asserting the claim accepts the offer, the party asserting the claim or such party’s attorney shall endorse such acceptance thereon and file the same with the clerk before trial, and within seven days from the time the offer was served upon such party asserting the claim; and thereupon judgment shall be given accordingly as a stipulated judgment. If the offer does not state that it includes costs and disbursements or attorney fees, the party asserting the claim shall submit any claim for costs and disbursements or attorney fees to the court as provided in Rule 68.

E(3) If the offer is not accepted and filed within the time prescribed, it shall be deemed withdrawn, and shall not be given in evidence at trial and may be filed with the court only after the case has been adjudicated on the merits and only if the party asserting the claim fails to obtain a judgment more favorable than the offer to allow judgment. In such a case, the party asserting the claim shall not recover costs, prevailing party fees, disbursements, or attorney fees incurred after the date of the offer, but the party against whom the claim was asserted shall recover of the party asserting the claim costs and disbursements, not including prevailing party fees, from the time of the service of the offer.

 

F Settlement conferences. A settlement conference may be ordered by the court at any time at the request of any party or upon the court’s own motion. Unless otherwise stipulated to by the parties, a judge other than the judge who will preside at trial shall conduct the settlement conference. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1979 c.284 §32; §E amended by CCP 12/13/80; §A amended by 1981 c.912 §2; §E amended by 1983 c.531 §1; §A amended by CCP 12/8/84; amended by 1995 c.618 §1; §E amended by CCP 12/11/04; §E amended by CCP 12/13/08; §§A,B,D,E amended by CCP 12/11/10]

 

SUBPOENA

RULE 55

 

A Defined; form. A subpoena is a writ or order directed to a person and may require the attendance of such person at a particular time and place to testify as a witness on behalf of a particular party therein mentioned or may require such person to produce books, papers, documents, or tangible things and permit inspection thereof at a particular time and place. A subpoena requiring attendance to testify as a witness requires that the witness remain until the testimony is closed unless sooner discharged, but at the end of each day’s attendance a witness may demand of the party, or the party’s attorney, the payment of legal witness fees for the next following day and if not then paid, the witness is not obliged to remain longer in attendance. Every subpoena shall state the name of the court and the title of the action.

 

B For production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things and to permit inspection. A subpoena may command the person to whom it is directed to produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, papers, documents, or tangible things in the possession, custody or control of that person at the time and place specified therein. A command to produce books, papers, documents, or tangible things and permit inspection thereof may be joined with a command to appear at trial or hearing or at deposition or, before trial, may be issued separately. A person commanded to produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, papers, documents or tangible things but not commanded to also appear for deposition, hearing or trial may, within 14 days after service of the subpoena or before the time specified for compliance if such time is less than 14 days after service, serve upon the party or attorney designated in the subpoena written objection to inspection or copying of any or all of the designated materials. If objection is made, the party serving the subpoena shall not be entitled to inspect and copy the materials except pursuant to an order of the court in whose name the subpoena was issued. If objection has been made, the party serving the subpoena may, upon notice to the person commanded to produce, move for an order at any time to compel production. In any case, where a subpoena commands production of books, papers, documents or tangible things the court, upon motion made promptly and in any event at or before the time specified in the subpoena for compliance therewith, may (1) quash or modify the subpoena if it is unreasonable and oppressive or (2) condition denial of the motion upon the advancement by the person in whose behalf the subpoena is issued of the reasonable cost of producing the books, papers, documents, or tangible things.

 

C Issuance.

C(1) By whom issued. A subpoena is issued as follows: (a) to require attendance before a court, or at the trial of an issue therein, or upon the taking of a deposition in an action pending therein or, if separate from a subpoena commanding the attendance of a person, to produce books, papers, documents or tangible things and to permit inspection thereof: (i) it may be issued in blank by the clerk of the court in which the action is pending, or if there is no clerk, then by a judge or justice of such court; or (ii) it may be issued by an attorney of record of the party to the action in whose behalf the witness is required to appear, subscribed by the signature of such attorney; (b) to require attendance before any person authorized to take the testimony of a witness in this state under Rule 38 C, or before any officer empowered by the laws of the United States to take testimony, it may be issued by the clerk of a circuit court in the county in which the witness is to be examined; (c) to require attendance out of court in cases not provided for in paragraph (a) of this subsection, before a judge, justice, or other officer authorized to administer oaths or take testimony in any matter under the laws of this state, it may be issued by the judge, justice, or other officer before whom the attendance is required.

C(2) By clerk in blank. Upon request of a party or attorney, any subpoena issued by a clerk of court shall be issued in blank and delivered to the party or attorney requesting it, who shall fill it in before service.

 

D Service; service on law enforcement agency; service by mail; proof of service.

D(1) Service. Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, a subpoena may be served by the party or any other person 18 years of age or older. The service shall be made by delivering a copy to the witness personally and giving or offering to the witness at the same time the fees to which the witness is entitled for travel to and from the place designated and, whether or not personal attendance is required, one day’s attendance fees. If the witness is under 14 years of age, the subpoena may be served by delivering a copy to the witness or to the witness’s parent, guardian or guardian ad litem. The service must be made so as to allow the witness a reasonable time for preparation and travel to the place of attendance. A subpoena for taking of a deposition, served upon an organization as provided in Rule 39 C(6), shall be served in the same manner as provided for service of summons in Rule 7 D(3)(b)(i), D(3)(c)(i), D(3)(d)(i), D(3)(e), D(3)(f), or D(3)(h). Copies of each subpoena commanding production of books, papers, documents or tangible things and inspection thereof before trial, not accompanied by command to appear at trial or hearing or at deposition, whether the subpoena is served personally or by mail, shall be served on each party at least seven days before the subpoena is served on the person required to produce and permit inspection, unless the court orders a shorter period. In addition, a subpoena shall not require production less than 14 days from the date of service upon the person required to produce and permit inspection, unless the court orders a shorter period.

D(2) Service on law enforcement agency.

D(2)(a) Every law enforcement agency shall designate individual or individuals upon whom service of subpoena may be made. At least one of the designated individuals shall be available during normal business hours. In the absence of the designated individuals, service of subpoena pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subsection may be made upon the officer in charge of the law enforcement agency.

D(2)(b) If a peace officer’s attendance at trial is required as a result of employment as a peace officer, a subpoena may be served on such officer by delivering a copy personally to the officer or to one of the individuals designated by the agency that employs the officer. A subpoena may be served by delivery to one of the individuals designated by the agency that employs the officer only if the subpoena is delivered at least 10 days before the date the officer’s attendance is required, the officer is currently employed as a peace officer by the agency, and the officer is present within the state at the time of service.

D(2)(c) When a subpoena has been served as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, the law enforcement agency shall make a good faith effort to give actual notice to the officer whose attendance is sought of the date, time, and location of the court appearance. If the officer cannot be notified, the law enforcement agency shall promptly notify the court and a postponement or continuance may be granted to allow the officer to be personally served.

D(2)(d) As used in this subsection, “law enforcement agency” means the Oregon State Police, a county sheriff’s department, or a municipal police department.

D(3) Service by mail.

Under the following circumstances, service of a subpoena to a witness by mail shall be of the same legal force and effect as personal service otherwise authorized by this section:

D(3)(a) The attorney certifies in connection with or upon the return of service that the attorney, or the attorney’s agent, has had personal or telephone contact with the witness, and the witness indicated a willingness to appear at trial if subpoenaed;

D(3)(b) The attorney, or the attorney’s agent, made arrangements for payment to the witness of fees and mileage satisfactory to the witness; and

D(3)(c) The subpoena was mailed to the witness more than 10 days before trial by certified mail or some other designation of mail that provides a receipt for the mail signed by the recipient, and the attorney received a return receipt signed by the witness more than three days prior to trial.

D(4) Service by mail; exception. Service of subpoena by mail may be used for a subpoena commanding production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things, not accompanied by a command to appear at trial or hearing or at deposition.

D(5) Proof of service. Proof of service of a subpoena is made in the same manner as proof of service of a summons except that the server need not certify that the server is not a party in the action, an attorney for a party in the action or an officer, director or employee of a party in the action.

 

E Subpoena for hearing or trial; prisoners. If the witness is confined in a prison or jail in this state, a subpoena may be served on such person only upon leave of court, and attendance of the witness may be compelled only upon such terms as the court prescribes. The court may order temporary removal and production of the prisoner for the purpose of giving testimony or may order that testimony only be taken upon deposition at the place of confinement. The subpoena and court order shall be served upon the custodian of the prisoner.

 

F Subpoena for taking depositions or requiring production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things; place of production and examination.

F(1) Subpoena for taking deposition. Proof of service of a notice to take a deposition as provided in Rules 39 C and 40 A, or of notice of subpoena to command production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things before trial as provided in subsection D(1) of this rule or a certificate that such notice will be served if the subpoena can be served, constitutes a sufficient authorization for the issuance by a clerk of court of subpoenas for the persons named or described therein.

F(2) Place of examination. A resident of this state who is not a party to the action may be required by subpoena to attend an examination or to produce books, papers, documents, or tangible things only in the county wherein such person resides, is employed or transacts business in person, or at such other convenient place as is fixed by an order of court. A nonresident of this state who is not a party to the action may be required by subpoena to attend an examination or to produce books, papers, documents, or tangible things only in the county wherein such person is served with a subpoena, or at such other convenient place as is fixed by an order of court.

F(3) Production without examination or deposition. A party who issues a subpoena may command the person to whom it is issued to produce books, papers, documents, or tangible things, other than individually identifiable health information as described in section H, by mail or otherwise, at a time and place specified in the subpoena, without commanding inspection of the originals or a deposition. In such instances, the person to whom the subpoena is directed complies if the person produces copies of the specified items in the specified manner and certifies that the copies are true copies of all the items responsive to the subpoena or, if all items are not included, why they are not.

 

G Disobedience of subpoena; refusal to be sworn or answer as a witness. Disobedience to a subpoena or a refusal to be sworn or answer as a witness may be punished as contempt by a court before whom the action is pending or by the judge or justice issuing the subpoena. Upon hearing or trial, if the witness is a party and disobeys a subpoena or refuses to be sworn or answer as a witness, such party’s complaint, answer, or reply may be stricken.

 

H Individually identifiable health information.

H(1) Definitions. As used in this rule, the terms “individually identifiable health information” and “qualified protective order” are defined as follows:

H(1)(a) “Individually identifiable health information” means information which identifies an individual or which could be used to identify an individual; which has been collected from an individual and created or received by a health care provider, health plan, employer, or health care clearinghouse; and which relates to the past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of an individual; the provision of health care to an individual; or the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to an individual.

H(1)(b) “Qualified protective order” means an order of the court, by stipulation of the parties to the litigation, or otherwise that prohibits the parties from using or disclosing individually identifiable health information for any purpose other than the litigation for which such information was requested and which requires the return to the original custodian of such information or the destruction of the individually identifiable health information (including all copies made) at the end of the litigation.

H(2) Mode of Compliance. Individually identifiable health information may be obtained by subpoena only as provided in this section. However, if disclosure of any requested records is restricted or otherwise limited by state or federal law, then the protected records shall not be disclosed in response to the subpoena unless the requesting party has complied with the applicable law.

H(2)(a) The attorney for the party issuing a subpoena requesting production of individually identifiable health information must serve the custodian or other keeper of such information either with a qualified protective order or with an affidavit or declaration together with attached supporting documentation demonstrating that:

H(2)(a)(i) the party has made a good faith attempt to provide written notice to the individual or the individual’s attorney that the individual or the attorney had 14 days from the date of the notice to object;

H(2)(a)(ii) the notice included the proposed subpoena and sufficient information about the litigation in which the individually identifiable health information was being requested to permit the individual or the individual’s attorney to object; and

H(2)(a)(iii) the individual did not object within the 14 days or, if objections were made, they were resolved and the information being sought is consistent with such resolution. The party issuing a subpoena must also certify that he or she will, promptly upon request, permit the patient or the patient’s representative to inspect and copy the records received.

H(2)(b) Within 14 days from the date of a notice requesting individually identifiable health information, the individual or the individual’s attorney objecting to the subpoena shall respond in writing to the party issuing the notice, stating the reason for each objection.

H(2)(c) Except as provided in subsection (4) of this section, when a subpoena is served upon a custodian of individually identifiable health information in an action in which the entity or person is not a party, and the subpoena requires the production of all or part of the records of the entity or person relating to the care or treatment of an individual, it is sufficient compliance therewith if a custodian delivers by mail or otherwise a true and correct copy of all of the records responsive to the subpoena within five days after receipt thereof. Delivery shall be accompanied by an affidavit or a declaration as described in subsection (3) of this section.

H(2)(d) The copy of the records shall be separately enclosed in a sealed envelope or wrapper on which the title and number of the action, name of the witness, and date of the subpoena are clearly inscribed. The sealed envelope or wrapper shall be enclosed in an outer envelope or wrapper and sealed. The outer envelope or wrapper shall be addressed as follows: if the subpoena directs attendance in court, to the clerk of the court, or to the judge thereof if there is no clerk; if the subpoena directs attendance at a deposition or other hearing, to the officer administering the oath for the deposition, at the place designated in the subpoena for the taking of the deposition or at the officer’s place of business; in other cases involving a hearing, to the officer or body conducting the hearing at the official place of business; if no hearing is scheduled, to the attorney or party issuing the subpoena. If the subpoena directs delivery of the records to the attorney or party issuing the subpoena, then a copy of the proposed subpoena shall be served on the person whose records are sought, and on all other parties to the litigation, not less than 14 days prior to service of the subpoena on the entity or person. Any party to the proceeding may inspect the records provided and/or request a complete copy of the records. Upon request, the records must be promptly provided by the party who issued the subpoena at the requesting party’s expense.

H(2)(e) After filing and after giving reasonable notice in writing to all parties who have appeared of the time and place of inspection, the copy of the records may be inspected by any party or by the attorney of record of a party in the presence of the custodian of the court files, but otherwise shall remain sealed and shall be opened only at the time of trial, deposition, or other hearing at the direction of the judge, officer, or body conducting the proceeding. The records shall be opened in the presence of all parties who have appeared in person or by counsel at the trial, deposition, or hearing. Records which are not introduced in evidence or required as part of the record shall be returned to the custodian who produced them.

H(2)(f) For purposes of this section, the subpoena duces tecum to the custodian of the records may be served by first class mail. Service of subpoena by mail under this section shall not be subject to the requirements of subsection (3) of section D.

H(3) Affidavit or declaration of custodian of records.

H(3)(a) The records described in subsection (2) of this section shall be accompanied by the affidavit or declaration of a custodian of the records, stating in substance each of the following:

H(3)(a)(i) that the affiant or declarant is a duly authorized custodian of the records and has authority to certify records;

H(3)(a)(ii) that the copy is a true copy of all the records responsive to the subpoena; and

H(3)(a)(iii) that the records were prepared by the personnel of the entity or person acting under the control of either, in the ordinary course of the entity’s or person’s business, at or near the time of the act, condition, or event described or referred to therein.

H(3)(b) If the entity or person has none of the records described in the subpoena, or only a part thereof, the affiant or declarant shall so state in the affidavit or declaration and shall send only those records of which the affiant or declarant has custody.

H(3)(c) When more than one person has knowledge of the facts required to be stated in the affidavit or declaration, more than one affidavit or declaration may be used.

H(4) Personal attendance of custodian of records may be required.

H(4)(a) The personal attendance of a custodian of records and the production of original records is required if the subpoena duces tecum contains the following statement:

______________________________________________________________________________

The personal attendance of a custodian of records and the production of original records is required by this subpoena. The procedure authorized pursuant to Oregon Rule of Civil Procedure 55 H(2) shall not be deemed sufficient compliance with this subpoena.

______________________________________________________________________________

H(4)(b) If more than one subpoena duces tecum is served on a custodian of records and personal attendance is required under each pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection, the custodian shall be deemed to be the witness of the party serving the first such subpoena.

H(5) Tender and payment of fees. Nothing in this section requires the tender or payment of more than one witness and mileage fee or other charge unless there has been agreement to the contrary.

H(6) Scope of discovery. Notwithstanding any other provision, this rule does not expand the scope of discovery beyond that provided in Rule 36 or Rule 44. [CCP 12/2/78; §§A,C,H amended by 1979 c.284 §§33,34,35; §§D(1), F(2) amended by CCP 12/13/80; §D amended by CCP 12/4/82; §D amended by 1983 c.751 §5; §H(2) amended by CCP 12/13/86; §H(2) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §E amended by 1989 c.980 §3; §§A,B,C,D,F,H amended by CCP 12/15/90; §H amended by 1993 c.18 §3; §D amended by CCP 12/10/94 and 1995 c.79 §404; §§F,H amended by CCP 12/10/94; §I added by 1995 c.694 §1; §I amended by CCP 12/14/96; §D amended by 1997 c.249 §10; §C amended by 1999 c.59 §5; §I amended by CCP 12/12/98; §H amended by 2001 c.104 §3; §H amended by CCP 12/14/02 and 2003 c.194 §11; §I deleted by CCP 12/14/02; §F amended by CCP 12/9/06; §D amended by CCP 12/13/08 and 2009 c.364 §1; §H amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

TRIAL BY JURY

RULE 56

 

Trial by jury defined.

 

A Twelve-person juries. A trial jury in the circuit court is a body of 12 persons drawn as provided in Rule 57. The parties may stipulate that a jury shall consist of any number less than 12 or that a verdict or finding of a stated majority of the jurors shall be taken as the verdict or finding of the jury.

 

B Six-person juries. Notwithstanding section A of this rule, a jury in circuit court shall consist of six persons if the amount in controversy is less than $10,000. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by 1995 c.658 §119]

 

JURORS

RULE 57

 

A Challenging compliance with selection procedures.

A(1) Motion. Within 7 days after the moving party discovered, or by the exercise of diligence could have discovered, the grounds therefor, and in any event before the jury is sworn to try the case, a party may move to stay the proceedings or for other appropriate relief on the ground of substantial failure to comply with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10 in selecting the jury.

A(2) Stay of proceedings. Upon motion filed under subsection (1) of this section containing a sworn statement of facts which, if true, would constitute a substantial failure to comply with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10 in selecting the jury, the moving party is entitled to present in support of the motion: the testimony of the clerk or court administrator; any relevant records and papers not public or otherwise available used by the clerk or court administrator; and any other relevant evidence. If the court determines that in selecting the jury there has been a substantial failure to comply with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10, the court shall stay the proceedings pending the selection of a jury in conformity with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10, or grant other appropriate relief.

A(3) Exclusive means of challenge. The procedures prescribed by this section are the exclusive means by which a party in a civil case may challenge a jury on the ground that the jury was not selected in conformity with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10.

 

B Jury; how drawn. When the action is called for trial, the clerk shall draw names at random from the names of jurors in attendance upon the court until the jury is completed or the names of jurors in attendance are exhausted. If the names of jurors in attendance become exhausted before the jury is complete, the sheriff, under the direction of the court, shall summon from the bystanders, or from the body of the county, so many qualified persons as may be necessary to complete the jury. Whenever the sheriff shall summon more than one person at a time from the bystanders, or from the body of the county, the sheriff shall return a list of the persons so summoned to the clerk. The clerk shall draw names at random from the list until the jury is completed.

 

C Examination of jurors. When the full number of jurors has been called, they shall be examined as to their qualifications, first by the court, then by the plaintiff, and then by the defendant. The court shall regulate the examination in such a way as to avoid unnecessary delay.

 

D Challenges.

D(1) Challenges for cause; grounds. Challenges for cause may be taken on any one or more of the following grounds:

D(1)(a) The want of any qualification prescribed by ORS 10.030 for a person eligible to act as a juror.

D(1)(b) The existence of a mental or physical defect which satisfies the court that the challenged person is incapable of performing the duties of a juror in the particular action without prejudice to the substantial rights of the challenging party.

D(1)(c) Consanguinity or affinity within the fourth degree to any party.

D(1)(d) Standing in the relation of guardian and ward, physician and patient, master and servant, landlord and tenant, or debtor and creditor to the adverse party; or being a member of the family of, or a partner in business with, or in the employment for wages of, or being an attorney for or a client of the adverse party; or being surety in the action called for trial, or otherwise, for the adverse party.

D(1)(e) Having served as a juror on a previous trial in the same action, or in another action between the same parties for the same cause of action, upon substantially the same facts or transaction.

D(1)(f) Interest on the part of the juror in the outcome of the action, or the principal question involved therein.

D(1)(g) Actual bias on the part of a juror. Actual bias is the existence of a state of mind on the part of a juror that satisfies the court, in the exercise of sound discretion, that the juror cannot try the issue impartially and without prejudice to the substantial rights of the party challenging the juror. Actual bias may be in reference to: the action; either party to the action; the sex of the party, the party’s attorney, a victim, or a witness; or a racial or ethnic group of which the party, the party’s attorney, a victim, or a witness is a member, or is perceived to be a member. A challenge for actual bias may be taken for the cause mentioned in this paragraph, but on the trial of such challenge, although it should appear that the juror challenged has formed or expressed an opinion upon the merits of the cause from what the juror may have heard or read, such opinion shall not of itself be sufficient to sustain the challenge, but the court must be satisfied, from all of the circumstances, that the juror cannot disregard such opinion and try the issue impartially.

D(2) Peremptory challenges; number. A peremptory challenge is an objection to a juror for which no reason need be given, but upon which the court shall exclude such juror. Either party is entitled to no more than three peremptory challenges if the jury consists of more than six jurors, and no more than two peremptory challenges if the jury consists of six jurors. Where there are multiple parties plaintiff or defendant in the case, or where cases have been consolidated for trial, the parties plaintiff or defendant must join in the challenge and are limited to the number of peremptory challenges specified in this subsection except the court, in its discretion and in the interest of justice, may allow any of the parties, single or multiple, additional peremptory challenges and permit them to be exercised separately or jointly.

D(3) Conduct of peremptory challenges. After the full number of jurors has been passed for cause, peremptory challenges shall be conducted by written ballot or outside of the presence of the jury as follows: the plaintiff may challenge one and then the defendant may challenge one, and so alternating until the peremptory challenges shall be exhausted. After each challenge, the panel shall be filled and the additional juror passed for cause before another peremptory challenge shall be exercised, and neither party is required to exercise a peremptory challenge unless the full number of jurors is in the jury box at the time. The refusal to challenge by either party in the order of alternation shall not defeat the adverse party of such adverse party’s full number of challenges, and such refusal by a party to exercise a challenge in proper turn shall conclude that party as to the jurors once accepted by that party and, if that party’s right of peremptory challenge is not exhausted, that party’s further challenges shall be confined, in that party’s proper turn, to such additional jurors as may be called. The court may, for good cause shown, permit a challenge to be taken as to any juror before the jury is completed and sworn, notwithstanding that the juror challenged may have been previously accepted, but nothing in this subsection shall be construed to increase the number of peremptory challenges allowed.

D(4) Challenge of peremptory challenge exercised on basis of race, ethnicity, or sex.

D(4)(a) A party may not exercise a peremptory challenge on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex. Courts shall presume that a peremptory challenge does not violate this paragraph, but the presumption may be rebutted in the manner provided by this section.

D(4)(b) If a party believes that the adverse party is exercising a peremptory challenge on a basis prohibited under paragraph (a) of this subsection, the party may object to the exercise of the challenge. The objection must be made before the court excuses the juror. The objection must be made outside of the presence of the jurors. The party making the objection has the burden of establishing a prima facie case that the adverse party challenged the juror on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex.

D(4)(c) If the court finds that the party making the objection has established a prima facie case that the adverse party challenged a prospective juror on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex, the burden shifts to the adverse party to show that the peremptory challenge was not exercised on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex. If the adverse party fails to meet the burden of justification as to the questioned challenge, the presumption that the challenge does not violate paragraph (a) of this subsection is rebutted.

D(4)(d) If the court finds that the adverse party challenged a prospective juror on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex, the court shall disallow the peremptory challenge.

 

E Oath of jury. As soon as the number of the jury has been completed, an oath or affirmation shall be administered to the jurors, in substance that they and each of them will well and truly try the matter in issue between the plaintiff and defendant, and a true verdict give according to the law and evidence as given them on the trial.

 

F Alternate jurors.

F(1) Definition. Alternate jurors are prospective replacement jurors empanelled at the court’s discretion to serve in the event that the number of jurors required under Rule 56 is decreased by illness, incapacitation, or disqualification of one or more jurors selected.

F(2) Decision to allow alternate jurors. The court has discretion over whether alternate jurors may be empanelled. If the court allows, not more than six alternate jurors may be empanelled.

F(3) Peremptory challenges; number. In addition to challenges otherwise allowed by these rules or any other rule or statute, each party is entitled to: (a) one peremptory challenge if one or two alternate jurors are to be empanelled; (b) two peremptory challenges if three or four alternate jurors are to be empanelled; and (c) three peremptory challenges if five or six alternate jurors are to be empanelled. The court shall have discretion as to when and how additional peremptory challenges may be used and when and how alternate jurors are selected.

F(4) Duties and responsibilities. Alternate jurors shall be drawn in the same manner; shall have the same qualifications; shall be subject to the same examination and challenge rules; shall take the same oath; and shall have the same functions, powers, facilities, and privileges as the jurors throughout the trial, until the case is submitted for deliberations. An alternate juror who does not replace a juror shall not attend or otherwise participate in deliberations.

F(5) Installation and discharge. Alternate jurors shall be installed to replace any jurors who become unable to perform their duties or are found to be disqualified before the jury begins deliberations. Alternate jurors who do not replace jurors before the beginning of deliberations and who have not been discharged may be installed to replace jurors who become ill or otherwise are unable to complete deliberations. If an alternate juror replaces a juror after deliberations have begun, the jury shall be instructed to begin deliberations anew. [CCP 12/2/78; §§C,F amended by 1979 c.284 §§36,37; §C amended by CCP 12/8/84; 1985 c.703 §20; §C amended by CCP 12/10/94; §D amended by 1995 c.530 §1 and 1995 c.707 §1; §D amended by 1997 c.801 §69; §§A,B,D,F amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

TRIAL PROCEDURE

RULE 58

 

A Manner of proceedings on trial by the court. Trial by the court shall proceed in the manner prescribed in subsections (3) through (6) of section B of this rule, unless the court, for good cause stated in the record, otherwise directs.

 

B Manner of proceedings on jury trial. Trial by a jury shall proceed in the following manner unless the court, for good cause stated in the record, otherwise directs:

B(1) The jury shall be selected and sworn. Prior to voir dire, each party may, with the court’s consent, present a short statement of the facts to the entire jury panel.

B(2) After the jury is sworn, the court shall instruct the jury concerning its duties, its conduct, the order of proceedings, the procedure for submitting written questions to witnesses if permitted, and the legal principles that will govern the proceedings.

B(3) The plaintiff shall concisely state plaintiff’s case and the issues to be tried; the defendant then, in like manner, shall state defendant’s case based upon any defense or counterclaim or both.

B(4) The plaintiff shall introduce the evidence on plaintiff’s case in chief, and when plaintiff has concluded, the defendant shall do likewise.

B(5) The parties respectively may introduce rebutting evidence only, unless the court in furtherance of justice permits them to introduce evidence upon the original cause of action, defense, or counterclaim.

B(6) When the evidence is concluded, unless the case is submitted by both sides to the jury without argument, the plaintiff shall commence and conclude the argument to the jury. The plaintiff may waive the opening argument, and if the defendant then argues the case to the jury, the plaintiff shall have the right to reply to the argument of the defendant, but not otherwise.

B(7) Not more than two counsel shall address the jury on behalf of the plaintiff or defendant; the whole time occupied on behalf of either shall not be limited to less than two hours.

B(8) After the evidence is concluded, the court shall instruct the jury. The court may instruct the jury before or after the closing arguments.

B(9) With the court’s consent, jurors shall be permitted to submit to the court written questions directed to witnesses or to the court. The court shall afford the parties an opportunity to object to such questions outside the presence of the jury.

 

C Separation of jury before submission of cause; admonition. The jurors may be kept together in charge of a proper officer, or may, in the discretion of the court, at any time before the submission of the cause to them, be permitted to separate; in either case, they may be admonished by the court that it is their duty not to converse with any other person, or among themselves, on any subject connected with the trial, or to express any opinion thereon, until the case is finally submitted to them.

 

D Proceedings if juror becomes sick. If, after the formation of the jury, and before verdict, a juror becomes sick, so as to be unable to perform the duty of a juror, the court may order such juror to be discharged. In that case, unless an alternate juror, seated under Rule 57 F, is available to replace the discharged juror or unless the parties agree to proceed with the remaining jurors, a new juror may be sworn, and the trial begin anew; or the jury may be discharged, and a new jury then or afterwards formed.

 

E Failure to appear for trial. When a party who has filed an appearance fails to appear for trial, the court may, in its discretion, proceed to trial and judgment without further notice to the non-appearing party. [CCP 12/2/78; §E adopted by CCP 12/10/94; §§A,B amended by CCP 12/9/00]

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO JURY AND DELIBERATION

RULE 59

 

A Proposed instructions. Unless otherwise requested by the trial judge on timely notice to counsel, proposed instructions shall be submitted at the commencement of the trial. Proposed instructions upon questions of law developed by the evidence, which could not be reasonably anticipated, may be submitted at any time before the court has instructed the jury. The number of copies of proposed instructions and their form shall be governed by local court rule.

 

B Charging the jury. In charging the jury, the court shall state to the jury all matters of law necessary for its information in giving its verdict. Whenever the knowledge of the court is by statute made evidence of a fact, the court shall declare such knowledge to the jury, which is bound to accept it as conclusive. The court shall reduce, or require a party to reduce, the instructions to writing. The jury shall take the court’s written instructions with it while deliberating upon the verdict. The clerk shall file a copy of the written instructions given to the jury in the court file of the case.

 

C Deliberation.

C(1) Exhibits. Upon retiring for deliberation the jury may take with them all exhibits received in evidence, except depositions.

C(2) Written statement of issues. Pleadings shall not go to the jury room. The court may, in its discretion, submit to the jury an impartial written statement summarizing the issues to be decided by the jury.

C(3) Copies of documents. Copies may be substituted for any parts of public records or private documents as ought not, in the opinion of the court, to be taken from the person having them in possession.

C(4) Notes. Jurors may take notes of the testimony or other proceeding on the trial and may take such notes into the jury room.

C(5) Custody of and communications with jury. After hearing the charge and submission of the cause to them, the jury shall retire for deliberation. When they retire, they must be kept together in some convenient place, under the charge of an officer, until they agree upon their verdict or are allowed by the court to separate or are discharged by the court. Unless by order of the court, the officer must not suffer any communication to be made to them, or make any personally, except to ask them if they are agreed upon a verdict, and the officer must not, before their verdict is rendered, communicate to any person the state of their deliberations, or the verdict agreed upon. Before any officer takes charge of a jury, this subsection shall be read to the officer who shall be then sworn to follow its provisions to the utmost of such officer’s ability.

C(6) Separation during deliberation. The court in its discretion may allow the jury to separate during its deliberation when the court is of the opinion that the deliberation process will not be adversely affected. In such cases the court will give the jury appropriate cautionary instruction.

C(7) Juror’s use of private knowledge or information. A juror shall not communicate any private knowledge or information that the juror may have of the matter in controversy to other jurors nor shall the juror be governed by the same in giving his or her verdict.

 

D Further instructions. After retirement for deliberation, if the jury requests information on any point of law, the judge may require the officer having them in charge to conduct them into court. Upon the jury being brought into court, the information requested, if given, shall be given either orally or in writing in the presence of, or after notice to, the parties or their counsel.

 

E Comments on evidence. The judge shall not instruct with respect to matters of fact, nor comment thereon.

 

F Discharge of jury without verdict.

F(1) When jury may be discharged. The jury shall not be discharged after the cause is submitted to them until they have agreed upon a verdict and given it in open court unless:

F(1)(a) At the expiration of such period as the court deems proper, it satisfactorily appears that there is no probability of an agreement; or

F(1)(b) An accident or calamity requires their discharge; or

F(1)(c) A juror becomes ill as provided in Rule 58 D.

F(2) New trial when jury discharged. Where the jury is discharged without giving a verdict, either during the progress of the trial or after the cause is submitted to them, the action may be again tried immediately, or at a future time, as the court directs.

 

G Return of jury verdict.

G(1) Declaration of verdict. When the jurors have agreed upon their verdict, they shall be conducted into court by the officer having them in charge. The court shall inquire whether they have agreed upon their verdict. If the foreperson answers in the affirmative, it shall be read.

G(2) Number of jurors concurring. In civil cases three-fourths of the jury may render a verdict.

G(3) Polling the jury. When the verdict is given, and before it is filed, the jury may be polled on the request of a party, for which purpose each juror shall be asked whether the verdict is the juror’s verdict. If fewer jurors answer in the affirmative than the number required to render a verdict, the jury shall be sent out for further deliberations.

G(4) Informal or insufficient verdict. If the verdict is informal or insufficient, it may be corrected by the jury under the advice of the court, or the jury may be required to deliberate further.

G(5) Completion of verdict; form and entry. When a verdict is given and is such as the court may receive, the clerk shall file the verdict. Then the jury shall be discharged from the case.

 

H Necessity of noting exception on error in statement of issues or instructions given or refused.

H(1) Statement of issues or instructions given or refused. A party may not obtain appellate review of an asserted error by a trial court in submitting or refusing to submit a statement of issues to a jury pursuant to subsection C(2) of this rule or in giving or refusing to give an instruction to a jury unless the party seeking review identified the asserted error to the trial court and made a notation of exception immediately after the court instructed the jury or at such other time as the trial court directed. The requirements of this rule do not preclude an appellate court from reviewing asserted errors in jury statements or instructions for legal errors that are apparent on the record.

H(2) Exceptions must be specific and on the record. The notation of exception required by subsection (1) of this section must be made orally on the record or in a writing filed with the court and must identify with particularity the points on which the exception is based. In noting an exception, a party may incorporate by reference the points that the party previously made with particularity on the record regarding the statement or instruction to which the exception applies. [CCP 12/2/78; §B amended by 1979 c.284 §38; §C amended by 1981 c.662 §1 and 1981 c.892 §97b; §B amended by CCP 12/4/82; §C(6) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §G amended by 1997 c.249 §11; §B amended by CCP 12/14/02; §H amended by CCP 12/11/04; §B amended by CCP 12/13/08; §H amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

MOTION FOR DIRECTED VERDICT

RULE 60

 

Motion for a directed verdict. Any party may move for a directed verdict at the close of the evidence offered by an opponent or at the close of all the evidence. A party who moves for a directed verdict at the close of the evidence offered by an opponent may offer evidence in the event that the motion is not granted, without having reserved the right so to do and to the same extent as if the motion had not been made. A motion for a directed verdict which is not granted is not a waiver of trial by jury even though all parties to the action have moved for directed verdicts. A motion for a directed verdict shall state the specific grounds therefor. The order of the court granting a motion for a directed verdict is effective without any assent of the jury. If a motion for directed verdict is made by the party against whom the claim is asserted, the court may, at its discretion, give a judgment of dismissal without prejudice under Rule 54 rather than direct a verdict. [CCP 12/2/78; amended by CCP 12/13/80]

 

VERDICTS, GENERAL AND SPECIAL

RULE 61

 

A General verdict.

A(1) A general verdict is that by which the jury pronounces generally upon all or any of the issues either in favor of the plaintiff or defendant.

A(2) When a general verdict is found in favor of a party asserting a claim for the recovery of money, the jury shall also assess the amount of recovery. A specific designation by a jury that no amount of recovery shall be had complies with this subsection.

 

B Special verdict. The court may require a jury to return only a special verdict in the form of a special written finding upon each issue of fact. In that event the court may submit to the jury written questions susceptible of categorical or other brief answer or may submit written forms of the several special findings which might properly be made under the pleadings and evidence; or it may use such other method of submitting the issues and requiring the written findings thereon as it deems most appropriate. The court shall give to the jury such explanation and instruction concerning the matter thus submitted as may be necessary to enable the jury to make its findings upon each issue. If in so doing the court omits any issue of fact raised by the pleadings or by the evidence, each party waives the right to a trial by jury of the issue so omitted unless before the jury retires such party demands its submission to the jury. As to an issue omitted without such demand, the court may make a finding; or, if it fails to do so, it shall be deemed to have made a finding in accord with the judgment on the special verdict.

 

C General verdict accompanied by answer to interrogatories. The court may submit to the jury, together with appropriate forms for a general verdict, written interrogatories upon one or more issues of fact the decision of which is necessary to a verdict. The court shall give such explanation or instruction as may be necessary to enable the jury both to make answers to the interrogatories and to render a general verdict, and the court shall direct the jury both to make written answers and to render a general verdict. When the general verdict and the answers are harmonious, the appropriate judgment upon the verdict and the answers shall be entered. When the answers are consistent with each other but one or more is inconsistent with the general verdict, judgment may be entered in accordance with the answers, notwithstanding the general verdict, or the court may return the jury for further consideration of its answers and verdict or may order a new trial. When the answers are inconsistent with each other and one or more is likewise inconsistent with the general verdict, judgment shall not be entered, but the court shall return the jury for further consideration of its answers and verdict or shall order a new trial.

 

D Action for specific personal property. In an action for the recovery of specific personal property, where any party who alleges a right to possession of such property is not in possession at the time of trial, in addition to any general verdict or other special verdict, the court shall require the jury to return a special verdict in the form of (1) a special written finding on the issue of the right to possession of any party alleging a right to possession, and (2) an assessment of the value of the property. [CCP 12/2/78]

 

FINDINGS OF FACT

RULE 62

 

A Necessity. Whenever any party appearing in a civil action tried by the court so demands prior to the commencement of the trial, the court shall make special findings of fact, and shall state separately its conclusions of law thereon. In the absence of such a demand for special findings, the court may make either general or special findings. If an opinion or memorandum of decision is filed, it will be sufficient if the findings of fact or conclusions of law appear therein.

 

B Proposed findings; objections. Within 10 days after the court has made its decision, any special findings requested by any party, or proposed by the court, shall be served upon all parties who have appeared in the case and shall be filed with the clerk; and any party may, within 10 days after such service, object to such proposed findings or any part thereof, and request other, different, or additional special findings, whether or not such party has previously requested special findings. Any such objections or requests for other, different, or additional special findings shall be heard and determined by the court within 30 days after the date of the filing thereof; and, if not so heard and determined, any such objections and requests for such other, different, or additional special findings shall conclusively be deemed denied.

 

C Entry of judgment. Upon (1) the determination of any objections to proposed special findings and of any requests for other, different, or additional special findings, or (2) the expiration of the time for filing such objections and requests if none is filed, or (3) the expiration of the time at which such objections or requests are deemed denied, the court shall enter the appropriate order or judgment. Any such judgment or order filed prior to the expiration of the periods above set forth shall be deemed not entered until the expiration of said periods.

 

D Extending or lessening time. Prior to the expiration of the times provided in sections B and C of this rule, the time for serving and filing special findings, or for objecting to and requesting other, different, or additional special findings, may be extended or lessened by the trial court upon the stipulation of the parties or for good cause shown; but in no event shall the time be extended more than 30 days.

 

E Necessity. Requests for findings of fact or objections to findings are not necessary for purposes of appellate review.

 

F Effect of findings of fact. In an action tried without a jury, except as provided in ORS 19.415 (3), the findings of the court upon the facts shall have the same force and effect, and be equally conclusive, as the verdict of a jury. [CCP 12/2/78; §F amended by CCP 12/14/02]

 

JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING THE VERDICT

RULE 63

 

A Grounds. When a motion for a directed verdict, made at the close of all the evidence, which should have been granted has been refused and a verdict is rendered against the applicant, the court may, on motion, render a judgment notwithstanding the verdict, or set aside any judgment which may have been entered and render another judgment, as the case may require.

 

B Reserving ruling on directed verdict motion. In any case where, in the opinion of the court, a motion for a directed verdict ought to be granted, it may nevertheless, at the request of the adverse party, submit the case to the jury with leave to the moving party to move for judgment in such party’s favor if the verdict is otherwise than as would have been directed or if the jury cannot agree on a verdict.

 

C Alternative motion for new trial. A motion in the alternative for a new trial may be joined with a motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict, and unless so joined shall, in the event that a motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict is filed, be deemed waived. When both motions are filed, the motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict shall have precedence over the motion for a new trial, and if granted the court shall, nevertheless, rule on the motion for a new trial and assign such reasons therefor as would apply had the motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict been denied, and shall make and file an order in accordance with said ruling.

 

D(1) Time for motion and ruling. A motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict shall be filed not later than 10 days after the entry of the judgment sought to be set aside, or such further time as the court may allow. The motion shall be heard and determined by the court within 55 days of the time of the entry of the judgment, and not thereafter, and if not so heard and determined within said time, the motion shall conclusively be deemed denied.

D(2) Effect of notice of appeal. A motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict filed within the time limit prescribed in subsection (1) of this section may be filed notwithstanding that another party has filed notice of appeal in the case and the trial court may decide the motion notwithstanding that notice of appeal has been filed. If a party files a motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict after notice of appeal has been filed, the moving party shall serve a copy of the motion on the appellate court. If the trial court decides the motion by order, the moving party shall file a copy of the order in the appellate court within seven days of the date of entry of the order. Any necessary modification of the appeal required by the order shall be pursuant to rule of the appellate court.

 

E Duties of the clerk. The clerk shall, on the date an order made pursuant to this rule is entered or on the date a motion is deemed denied pursuant to section D of this rule, whichever is earlier, mail a notice of the date of entry of the order or denial of the motion to the attorney of record, if any, of each party who is not in default for failure to appear. If a party who is not in default for failure to appear does not have an attorney of record, such notice shall be mailed to the party. The clerk also shall make a note in the register of the mailing.

 

F Motion for new trial after judgment notwithstanding the verdict. The party whose verdict has been set aside on motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict may serve a motion for a new trial pursuant to Rule 64 not later than 10 days after filing of the judgment notwithstanding the verdict. [CCP 12/2/78; §§D,E amended by CCP 12/13/80; §A amended by CCP 12/4/82; §E amended by 1995 c.79 §405; §E amended by 2003 c.576 §223; §D amended by CCP 12/9/06]

 

NEW TRIALS

RULE 64

 

A New trial defined. A new trial is a re-examination of an issue of fact in the same court after judgment.

 

B Jury trial; grounds for new trial. A former judgment may be set aside and a new trial granted in an action where there has been a trial by jury on the motion of the party aggrieved for any of the following causes materially affecting the substantial rights of such party:

B(1) Irregularity in the proceedings of the court, jury or adverse party, or any order of the court, or abuse of discretion, by which such party was prevented from having fair trial.

B(2) Misconduct of the jury or prevailing party.

B(3) Accident or surprise which ordinary prudence could not have guarded against.

B(4) Newly discovered evidence, material for the party making the application, which such party could not with reasonable diligence have discovered and produced at the trial.

B(5) Insufficiency of the evidence to justify the verdict or other decision, or that it is against law.

B(6) Error in law occurring at the trial and objected to or excepted to by the party making the application.

 

C New trial in case tried without a jury. In an action tried without a jury, a former judgment may be set aside and a new trial granted on motion of the party aggrieved on any grounds set forth in section B of this rule where applicable. On a motion for a new trial in an action tried without a jury, the court may open the judgment if one has been entered, take additional testimony, amend findings of fact and conclusions of law or make new findings and conclusions, and direct the entry of a new judgment.

 

D Specification of grounds of motion; when motion must be on affidavits or declarations. In all cases of motion for a new trial, the grounds thereof shall be plainly specified, and no cause of new trial not so stated shall be considered or regarded by the court. When the motion is made for a cause mentioned in subsections (1) through (4) of section B of this rule, it shall be upon affidavit or declaration setting forth the facts upon which the motion is based. If the cause is newly discovered evidence, the affidavits or declarations of any witness or witnesses showing what their testimony will be, shall be produced, or good reasons shown for their nonproduction.

 

E When counteraffidavits or counterdeclarations are allowed; former proceedings considered. If the motion is supported by affidavits or declarations, counteraffidavits or counterdeclarations may be offered by the adverse party. In the consideration of any motion for a new trial, reference may be had to any proceedings in the case prior to the verdict or other decision sought to be set aside.

 

F(1) Time of motion; counteraffidavits or counterdeclarations; hearing and determination. A motion to set aside a judgment and for a new trial, with the affidavits or declarations, if any, in support thereof, shall be filed not later than 10 days after the entry of the judgment sought to be set aside, or such further time as the court may allow. When the adverse party is entitled to oppose the motion by counteraffidavits or counterdeclarations, such party shall file the same within 10 days after the filing of the motion, or such further time as the court may allow. The motion shall be heard and determined by the court within 55 days from the time of the entry of the judgment, and not thereafter, and if not so heard and determined within said time, the motion shall conclusively be deemed denied.

F(2) Effect of notice of appeal. A motion for new trial filed within the time limit prescribed in subsection (1) of this section may be filed notwithstanding that another party has filed notice of appeal in the case and the trial court may decide the motion notwithstanding that notice of appeal has been filed. If a party files a motion for new trial after notice of appeal has been filed, the moving party shall serve a copy of the motion on the appellate court. If the trial court decides the motion by order, the moving party shall file a copy of the order in the appellate court within seven days of the date of entry of the order. Any necessary modification of the appeal required by the order shall be pursuant to rule of the appellate court.

 

G New trial on court’s own initiative. If a new trial is granted by the court on its own initiative, the order shall so state and shall be made within 30 days after the entry of the judgment. Such order shall contain a statement setting forth fully the grounds upon which the order was made, which statement shall be a part of the record in the case. [CCP 12/2/78; §B amended by 1979 c.284 §39; §§F,G amended by CCP 12/13/80; amended by 2003 c.194 §12; §F amended by CCP 12/9/06]

 

REFEREES

RULE 65

 

A In general.

A(1) Appointment. A court in which an action is pending may appoint a referee who shall have such qualifications as the court deems appropriate.

A(2) Compensation. The fees to be allowed to a referee shall be as provided in ORS 21.400.

A(3) Delinquent fees. The referee may not retain the referee’s report as security for compensation.

 

B Reference.

B(1) Reference by agreement. The court may make a reference upon the written consent of the parties. In any case triable by right to a jury, consent to reference for decision upon issues of fact shall be a waiver of right to jury trial.

B(2) Reference without agreement. Reference may be made in actions to be tried without a jury upon motion by any party or upon the court’s own initiative. In absence of agreement of the parties, a reference shall be made only upon a showing that some exceptional condition requires it.

 

C Powers.

C(1) Order of reference. The order of reference to a referee may specify or limit the referee’s powers and may direct the referee to report only upon particular issues, or to do or perform particular acts, or to receive and report evidence only. The order may fix the time and place for beginning and closing the hearings and for the filing of the referee’s report.

C(2) Power under order of reference. Subject to the specifications and limitations stated in the order, the referee has and shall exercise the power to regulate all proceedings in every hearing before the referee and to do all acts and take all measures necessary or proper for the efficient performance of duties under the order. The referee may require the production of evidence upon all matters embraced in the reference, including the production of all books, papers, vouchers, documents, and writings applicable thereto. Unless otherwise directed by the order of reference, the referee may rule upon the admissibility of evidence. The referee has the authority to put witnesses on oath and may personally examine such witnesses upon oath.

C(3) Record. When a party so requests, the referee shall make a record of the evidence offered and excluded in the same manner and subject to the same limitations as a court sitting without a jury.

 

D Proceedings.

D(1) Meetings.

D(1)(a) When a reference is made, the clerk or person performing the duties of that office shall forthwith furnish the referee with a copy of the order of reference. Upon receipt thereof, unless the order of reference otherwise provides, the referee shall forthwith set a time and place for the first meeting of the parties or their attorneys to be held within 20 days after the date of the order of reference and shall notify the parties or their attorneys of the meeting date.

D(1)(b) It is the duty of the referee to proceed with all reasonable diligence. Any party, after notice to the parties and the referee, may apply to the court for an order requiring the referee to speed the proceedings and to make the report.

D(1)(c) If a party fails to appear at the time and place appointed, the referee may proceed ex parte or may adjourn the proceedings to a future day, giving notice to the absent party of the adjournment.

D(2) Witnesses. The parties may procure the attendance of witnesses before the referee by the issuance and service of subpoenas as provided in Rule 55. If, without adequate excuse, a witness fails to appear or give evidence, that witness may be punished as for a contempt by the court and be subjected to the consequences, penalties, and remedies provided in Rule 55 G.

D(3) Accounts. When matters of accounting are in issue, the referee may prescribe the form in which the accounts shall be submitted and in any proper case may require or receive in evidence a statement by a certified public accountant who is called as a witness. Upon objection of a party to any of the items thus submitted or upon a showing that the form of statement is insufficient, the referee may require a different form of statement to be furnished or the accounts or specific items thereof to be proved by oral examination of the accounting parties or in such other manner as the referee directs.

 

E Report.

E(1) Contents. The referee shall without delay prepare a report upon the matters submitted by the order of reference and, if required to make findings of fact and conclusions of law, the referee shall set them forth in the report.

E(2) Filing. Unless otherwise directed by the order of reference, the referee shall file the report with the clerk of the court or person performing the duties of that office and shall file a transcript of the proceedings and of the evidence and the original exhibits with the report. The referee shall forthwith mail a copy of the report to all parties.

E(3) Effect.

E(3)(a) Unless the parties stipulate to the contrary, the referee’s findings of fact shall have the same effect as a jury verdict. Within 10 days after being served with notice of the filing of the report, any party may serve written objections thereto upon the other parties. Application to the court for action upon the report and upon objections to the report shall be by motion. The court after hearing may affirm or set aside the report, in whole or in part.

E(3)(b) In any case, the parties may stipulate that a referee’s findings of fact shall be binding or shall be binding unless clearly erroneous. [CCP 12/13/80; §A amended by 2012 c.48 §14]

 

SUBMITTED CONTROVERSY

RULE 66

 

A Submission without action. Parties to a question in controversy, which might have been the subject of an action with such parties plaintiff and defendant, may submit the question to the determination of a court having subject matter jurisdiction.

A(1) Contents of submission. The written submission shall consist of an agreed statement of facts upon which the controversy depends, a certificate that the controversy is real and that the submission is made in good faith for the purpose of determining the rights of the parties, and a request for relief.

A(2) Who must sign the submission. The submission must be signed by all parties or their attorneys as provided in Rule 17.

A(3) Effect of the submission. From the moment the submission is filed, the court shall treat the controversy as if it is an action pending after a special verdict found. The controversy shall be determined on the agreed case alone, but the court may find facts by inference from the agreed facts. If the statement of facts in the case is not sufficient to enable the court to enter judgment, the submission shall be dismissed or the court shall allow the filing of an additional statement.

 

B Submission of pending case. An action may be submitted in a pending action at any time before trial, subject to the same requirements and attended by the same results as in a submission without action, and in addition:

B(1) Pleadings deemed abandoned. Submission shall be an abandonment by all parties of all prior pleadings, and the case shall stand on the agreed case alone; and

B(2) Provisional remedies. The submission must provide for any provisional remedy which is to be continued or such remedy shall be deemed waived. [CCP 12/13/80]

 

JUDGMENTS

RULE 67

 

A Definitions. “Judgment” as used in these rules has the meaning given that term in ORS 18.005. “Order” as used in these rules means any other determination by a court or judge that is intermediate in nature.

 

B Judgment for less than all claims or parties in action. When more than one claim for relief is presented in an action, whether as a claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party claim, or when multiple parties are involved, the court may render a limited judgment as to one or more but fewer than all of the claims or parties. A judge may render a limited judgment under this section only if the judge determines that there is no just reason for delay.

 

C Demand for judgment. Every judgment shall grant the relief to which the party in whose favor it is rendered is entitled. A judgment for relief different in kind from or exceeding the amount prayed for in the pleadings may not be rendered unless reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard are given to any party against whom the judgment is to be entered.

 

D Judgment in action for recovery of personal property. In an action to recover the possession of personal property, judgment for the plaintiff may be for the possession, or the value of the property, in case a delivery cannot be had and damages for the detention of the property. If the property has been delivered to the plaintiff and the defendant claims a return of the property, judgment for the defendant may be for a return of the property, or the value of the property in case a return cannot be had, and damages for taking and withholding the same.

 

E Judgment in action against partnership, unincorporated association, or parties jointly indebted.

E(1) Partnership and unincorporated association. Judgment in an action against a partnership or unincorporated association which is sued in any name which it has assumed or by which it is known may be entered against such partnership or association and shall bind the joint property of all of the partners or associates.

E(2) Joint obligations; effect of judgment. In any action against parties jointly indebted upon a joint obligation, contract, or liability, judgment may be taken against less than all such parties and a default, dismissal, or judgment in favor of or against less than all of such parties in an action does not preclude a judgment in the same action in favor of or against the remaining parties.

 

F Judgment by stipulation.

F(1) Availability of judgment by stipulation. At any time after commencement of an action, a judgment may be given upon stipulation that a judgment for a specified amount or for a specific relief may be entered. The stipulation shall be of the party or parties against whom judgment is to be entered and the party or parties in whose favor judgment is to be entered. If the stipulation provides for attorney fees, costs, and disbursements, they may be entered as part of the judgment according to the stipulation.

F(2) Filing; assent in open court. The stipulation for judgment may be in a writing signed by the parties, their attorneys, or their authorized representatives, which writing shall be filed in accordance with Rule 9. The stipulation may be subjoined or appended to, and part of, a proposed form of judgment. If not in writing, the stipulation shall be assented to by all parties thereto in open court.

 

G Judgment on portion of claim exceeding counterclaim. The court may direct entry of a limited judgment as to that portion of any claim which exceeds a counterclaim asserted by the party or parties against whom the judgment is entered, if such party or parties have admitted the claim and asserted a counterclaim amounting to less than the claim. [CCP 12/13/80; §§A,B,G amended by 2003 c.576 §§90,261,568; §C amended by CCP 12/11/04]

 

ALLOWANCE AND TAXATION OF ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

RULE 68

 

A Definitions. As used in this rule:

A(1) Attorney fees. “Attorney fees” are the reasonable value of legal services related to the prosecution or defense of an action.

A(2) Costs and disbursements. “Costs and disbursements” are reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the prosecution or defense of an action, other than for legal services, and include the fees of officers and witnesses; the expense of publication of summonses or notices, and the postage where the same are served by mail; any fee charged by the Department of Transportation for providing address information concerning a party served with summons pursuant to subparagraph D(4)(a)(i) of Rule 7; the compensation of referees; the expense of copying of any public record, book, or document admitted into evidence at trial; recordation of any document where recordation is required to give notice of the creation, modification, or termination of an interest in real property; a reasonable sum paid a person for executing any bond, recognizance, undertaking, stipulation, or other obligation therein; and any other expense specifically allowed by agreement, by these rules, or by any other rule or statute. The court, acting in its sole discretion, may allow as costs reasonable expenses incurred by a party for interpreter services. The expense of taking depositions shall not be allowed, even though the depositions are used at trial, except as otherwise provided by rule or statute.

 

B Allowance of costs and disbursements. In any action, costs and disbursements shall be allowed to the prevailing party unless these rules or any other rule or statute direct that in the particular case costs and disbursements shall not be allowed to the prevailing party or shall be allowed to some other party, or unless the court otherwise directs. If, under a special provision of these rules or any other rule or statute, a party has a right to recover costs, such party shall also have a right to recover disbursements.

 

C Award of and entry of judgment for attorney fees and costs and disbursements.

C(1) Application of this section to award of attorney fees. Notwithstanding Rule 1 A and the procedure provided in any rule or statute permitting recovery of attorney fees in a particular case, this section governs the pleading, proof, and award of attorney fees in all cases, regardless of the source of the right to recover such fees, except when:

C(1)(a) Such items are claimed as damages arising prior to the action;

C(1)(b) Such items are granted by order, rather than entered as part of a judgment; or

C(1)(c) A statute that refers to this rule but provides for a procedure that varies from the procedure specified in this rule.

C(2)(a) Alleging right to attorney fees. A party seeking attorney fees shall allege the facts, statute, or rule that provides a basis for the award of such fees in a pleading filed by that party. Attorney fees may be sought before the substantive right to recover such fees accrues. No attorney fees shall be awarded unless a right to recover such fee is alleged as provided in this subsection or in paragraph C(2)(b) of this rule.

C(2)(b) If a party does not file a pleading but instead files a motion or a response to a motion, a right to attorney fees shall be alleged in such motion or response, in similar form to the allegations required in a pleading.

C(2)(c) A party shall not be required to allege a right to a specific amount of attorney fees. An allegation that a party is entitled to “reasonable attorney fees” is sufficient.

C(2)(d) Any allegation of a right to attorney fees in a pleading, motion, or response shall be deemed denied and no responsive pleading shall be necessary. The opposing party may make a motion to strike the allegation or to make the allegation more definite and certain. Any objection to the form or specificity of the allegation of the facts, statute, or rule that provides a basis for the award of fees shall be waived if not alleged prior to trial or hearing.

C(3) Proof. The items of attorney fees and costs and disbursements shall be submitted in the manner provided by subsection (4) of this section, without proof being offered during the trial.

C(4) Procedure for seeking attorney fees or costs and disbursements. The procedure for seeking attorney fees or costs and disbursements shall be as follows:

C(4)(a) Filing and serving statement of attorney fees and costs and disbursements. A party seeking attorney fees or costs and disbursements shall, not later than 14 days after entry of judgment pursuant to Rule 67:

C(4)(a)(i) File with the court a signed and detailed statement of the amount of attorney fees or costs and disbursements that explains the application of any factors that ORS 20.075 or any other statute or rule requires or permits the court to consider in awarding or denying attorney fees or costs and disbursements, together with proof of service, if any, in accordance with Rule 9 C; and

C(4)(a)(ii) Serve, in accordance with Rule 9 B, a copy of the statement on all parties who are not in default for failure to appear.

C(4)(b) Objections. A party may object to a statement seeking attorney fees or costs and disbursements or any part thereof by a written objection to the statement. The objection and supporting documents, if any, shall be served within 14 days after service on the objecting party of a copy of the statement. The objection shall be specific and may be founded in law or in fact and shall be deemed controverted without further pleading. The objecting party may present affidavits, declarations, and other evidence relevant to any factual issue, including any factors that ORS 20.075 or any other statute or rule requires or permits the court to consider in awarding or denying attorney fees or costs and disbursements.

C(4)(c) Response to objections. The party seeking an award of attorney fees may file a response to an objection filed pursuant to paragraph C(4)(b) of this rule. The response and supporting documents, if any, shall be served within seven days after service of the objection. The response shall be specific and may address issues of law or fact. The party seeking attorney fees may present affidavits, declarations, and other evidence relevant to any factual issue, including any factors that ORS 20.075 or any other statute or rule requires or permits the court to consider in awarding or denying attorney fees or costs and disbursements.

C(4)(d) Amendments. Statements, objections, and responses may be amended or supplemented in accordance with Rule 23.

C(4)(e) Hearing on objections. No hearing shall be held and the court may rule on the request for attorney fees based upon the statement, objection, response, and any accompanying affidavits or declarations unless a party has requested a hearing in the caption of the objection or response or unless the court sets a hearing on its own motion.

C(4)(e)(i) If a hearing is requested the court, without a jury, shall hear and determine all issues of law and fact raised by the objection.

C(4)(e)(ii) The court shall deny or award in whole or in part the amounts sought as attorney fees or costs and disbursements.

C(4)(f) No timely objections. If objections are not timely filed, the court may award attorney fees or costs and disbursements sought in the statement.

C(4)(g) Findings and conclusions. On the request of a party, the court shall make special findings of fact and state its conclusions of law on the record regarding the issues material to the award or denial of attorney fees. A party must make a request pursuant to this paragraph by including a request for findings and conclusions in the title of the statement of attorney fees or costs and disbursements, objection, or response filed pursuant to paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this subsection. In the absence of a request under this paragraph, the court may make either general or special findings of fact and may state its conclusions of law regarding attorney fees.

C(5) Judgment concerning attorney fees or costs and disbursements.

C(5)(a) As part of judgment. If all issues regarding attorney fees or costs and disbursements are decided before entry of a judgment pursuant to Rule 67, the court shall include any award or denial of attorney fees or costs and disbursements in that judgment.

C(5)(b) By supplemental judgment; notice. If any issue regarding attorney fees or costs and disbursements is not decided before entry of a general judgment, any award or denial of attorney fees or costs and disbursements shall be made by supplemental judgment.

C(6) Avoidance of multiple collection of attorney fees and costs and disbursements.

C(6)(a) Separate judgments for separate claims. If more than one judgment is entered in an action, the court shall take such steps as necessary to avoid the multiple taxation of the same attorney fees and costs and disbursements in those judgments.

C(6)(b) Separate judgments for the same claim. If more than one judgment is entered for the same claim (when separate actions are brought for the same claim against several parties who might have been joined as parties in the same action or, when pursuant to Rule 67 B, separate limited judgments are entered against several parties for the same claim), attorney fees and costs and disbursements may be entered in each judgment as provided in this rule, but satisfaction of one judgment bars recovery of attorney fees or costs and disbursements included in all other judgments. [CCP 12/13/80; amended by 1981 c.898 §7; §C amended by 1983 c.728 §6; §A(2) amended by CCP 12/8/84; §A amended by 1987 c.586 §43; §C(2) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §C amended by CCP 12/15/90; §A amended by CCP 12/12/92; §C amended by 1993 c.18 §4; §A amended by CCP 12/14/96; §A amended by 1997 c.872 §17; §C amended by CCP 12/12/98; §C amended by CCP 12/14/02, 2003 c.194 §13 and 2003 c.576 §262; §C amended by 2005 c.22 §4 and 2005 c.568 §31a; amended by CCP 12/1/12]

 

DEFAULT ORDERS AND JUDGMENTS

RULE 69

 

A In general.

A(1) When a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has been served with summons pursuant to Rule 7 or is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the court and has failed to appear by filing a motion or answer, or otherwise to defend as provided in these rules or applicable statute, the party seeking affirmative relief may apply for an order of default and a judgment by default by filing motions and affidavits or declarations in compliance with this rule.

A(2) The provisions of this rule apply whether the party entitled to an order of default and judgment by default is a plaintiff, a third party plaintiff, or a party who has pleaded a counterclaim or cross-claim.

A(3) In all cases a judgment by default is subject to the provisions of Rule 67 B.

 

B Intent to appear; notice of intent to apply for an order of default.

B(1) For the purposes of avoiding a default, a party may provide written notice of intent to file an appearance to a plaintiff, counterclaimant, or cross-claimant.

B(2) If the party against whom an order of default is sought has filed an appearance in the action, or has provided written notice of intent to file an appearance, then notice of the intent to apply for an order of default must be filed and served at least 10 days, unless shortened by the court, prior to applying for the order of default. The notice of intent to apply for an order of default must be in the form prescribed by Uniform Trial Court Rule 2.010 and must be filed with the court and served on the party against whom an order of default is sought.

 

C Motion for order of default.

C(1) The party seeking default must file a motion for order of default. That motion must be accompanied by an affidavit or declaration to support that default is appropriate and contain facts sufficient to establish the following:

C(1)(a) that the party to be defaulted has been served with summons pursuant to Rule 7 or is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the court;

C(1)(b) that the party against whom the order of default is sought has failed to appear by filing a motion or answer, or otherwise to defend as provided by these rules or applicable statute;

C(1)(c) whether written notice of intent to appear has been received by the movant and, if so, whether written notice of intent to apply for an order of default was filed and served at least 10 days, or any shortened period of time ordered by the court, prior to filing the motion;

C(1)(d) whether, to the best knowledge and belief of the party seeking an order of default, the party against whom judgment is sought is or is not incapacitated as defined in ORS 125.005, a minor, a protected person as defined in ORS 125.005, or a respondent as defined in ORS 125.005; and

C(1)(e) whether the party against whom the order is sought is or is not a person in the military service, or stating that the movant is unable to determine whether or not the party against whom the order is sought is in the military service as required by Section 201(b)(1) of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, 50 App. U.S.C.A. §521, as amended.

C(2) If the party seeking default states in the affidavit or declaration that the party against whom the order is sought:

C(2)(a) is incapacitated as defined in ORS 125.005, a minor, a protected person as defined in ORS 125.005, or a respondent as defined in ORS 125.005, an order of default may be entered against the party against whom the order is sought only if a guardian ad litem has been appointed or the party is represented by another person as described in Rule 27;

C(2)(b) is a person in the military service, an order of default may be entered against the party against whom the order is sought only in accordance with the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act.

C(3) The court may grant an order of default if it appears the motion and affidavit or declaration have been filed in good faith and good cause is shown that entry of such an order is proper.

 

D Motion for judgment by default.

D(1) A party seeking a judgment by default must file a motion, supported by affidavit or declaration. Specifically, the moving party must show:

D(1)(a) that an order of default has been granted or is being applied for contemporaneously;

D(1)(b) what relief is sought, including any amounts due as claimed in the pleadings;

D(1)(c) whether costs, disbursements, and/or attorney fees are allowable based on a contract, statute, rule, or other legal provision, in which case a party may include costs, disbursements, and attorney fees to be awarded pursuant to Rule 68.

D(2) The form of judgment submitted shall comply with all applicable rules and statutes.

D(3) The court, acting in its discretion, may conduct a hearing, make an order of reference, or order that issues be tried by a jury, as it deems necessary and proper, in order to enable the court to determine the amount of damages or to establish the truth of any averment by evidence or to make an investigation of any other matter. The court may determine the truth of any matter upon affidavits or declarations.

 

E Certain motor vehicle cases. No order of default shall be entered against a defendant served with summons pursuant to Rule 7 D(4)(a)(i) unless, in addition to the requirements in Rule 7 D(4)(a)(i), the plaintiff submits an affidavit or a declaration showing:

E(1) that the plaintiff has complied with Rule 7 D(4)(a)(i);

E(2) whether the identity of the defendant’s insurance carrier is known to the plaintiff or could be determined from any records of the Department of Transportation accessible to the plaintiff; and

E(3) if the identity of the defendant’s insurance carrier is known, that the plaintiff not less than 30 days prior to the application for an order of default mailed a copy of the summons and the complaint, together with notice of intent to apply for an order of default, to the insurance carrier by first class mail and by any of the following: certified, registered, or express mail, return receipt requested; or that the identity of the defendant’s insurance carrier is unknown to the plaintiff.

 

F Setting aside an order of default or judgment by default. For good cause shown, the court may set aside an order of default. If a judgment by default has been entered, the court may set it aside in accordance with Rule 71 B and C. [CCP 12/13/80; §B amended by 1981 c.898 §8; amended by CCP 12/13/86; §§A,B(2) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §B amended by CCP 12/15/90; amended by CCP 12/12/92; §B amended by 1995 c.79 §406 and 1995 c.664 §101; §C deleted and §§D,E,F redesignated by CCP 12/10/94; §A amended by CCP 12/14/96; §B amended by 2001 c.418 §1; amended by 2003 c.194 §14; §B amended by CCP 12/9/06; §§A,B amended by CCP 12/13/08; §§A,B,C,D,E amended by CCP 12/11/10; §F adopted by CCP 12/11/10]

 

RULE 70 [CCP 12/13/80; §C amended by 1981 c.898 §9; §A amended by 1987 c.873 §19; amended by 1989 c.768 §1; §C amended by CCP 12/15/90; §A amended by 1991 c.202 §20; §A amended by 1993 c.763 §3; §A amended by 1999 c.195 §4; §A amended by 2001 c.417 §2; §A amended by 2003 c.194 §15 and 2003 c.380 §5; repealed by 2003 c.576 §580]

 

RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT OR ORDER

RULE 71

 

A Clerical mistakes. Clerical mistakes in judgments, orders, or other parts of the record and errors therein arising from oversight or omission may be corrected by the court at any time on its own motion or on the motion of any party and after such notice to all parties who have appeared, if any, as the court orders. During the pendency of an appeal, a judgment may be corrected as provided in subsection (2) of section B of this rule.

 

B Mistakes; inadvertence; excusable neglect; newly discovered evidence, etc.

B(1) By motion. On motion and upon such terms as are just, the court may relieve a party or such party’s legal representative from a judgment for the following reasons: (a) mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect; (b) newly discovered evidence which by due diligence could not have been discovered in time to move for a new trial under Rule 64 F; (c) fraud (whether previously called intrinsic or extrinsic), misrepresentation, or other misconduct of an adverse party; (d) the judgment is void; or (e) the judgment has been satisfied, released, or discharged, or a prior judgment upon which it is based has been reversed or otherwise vacated, or it is no longer equitable that the judgment should have prospective application. A motion for reasons (a), (b), and (c) shall be accompanied by a pleading or motion under Rule 21 A which contains an assertion of a claim or defense. The motion shall be made within a reasonable time, and for reasons (a), (b), and (c) not more than one year after receipt of notice by the moving party of the judgment. A copy of a motion filed within one year after the entry of the judgment shall be served on all parties as provided in Rule 9 B, and all other motions filed under this rule shall be served as provided in Rule 7. A motion under this section does not affect the finality of a judgment or suspend its operation.

B(2) When appeal pending. A motion under sections A or B may be filed with and decided by the trial court during the time an appeal from a judgment is pending before an appellate court. The moving party shall serve a copy of the motion on the appellate court. The moving party shall file a copy of the trial court’s order in the appellate court within seven days of the date of the trial court order. Any necessary modification of the appeal required by the court order shall be pursuant to rule of the appellate court.

 

C Relief from judgment by other means. This rule does not limit the inherent power of a court to modify a judgment within a reasonable time, or the power of a court to entertain an independent action to relieve a party from a judgment, or the power of a court to grant relief to a defendant under Rule 7 D(6)(f), or the power of a court to set aside a judgment for fraud upon the court.

 

D Writs and bills abolished. Writs of coram nobis, coram vobis, audita querela, bills of review, and bills in the nature of a bill of review are abolished, and the procedure for obtaining any relief from a judgment shall be by motion or by an independent action. [CCP 12/13/80; §§A,B(2) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89; §B amended by CCP 12/11/10]

 

STAY OF PROCEEDINGS TO ENFORCE JUDGMENT

RULE 72

 

A Immediate execution; discretionary stay. Execution or other proceeding to enforce a judgment may issue immediately upon the entry of the judgment, unless the court directing entry of the judgment, in its discretion and on such conditions for the security of the adverse party as are proper, otherwise directs. The court shall have authority to stay execution of a judgment temporarily until the filing of a notice of appeal and to stay execution of a judgment pending disposition of an appeal, as provided in ORS 19.335, 19.340 and 19.350 or other provision of law.

 

B Other stays. This rule does not limit the right of a party to a stay otherwise provided for by these rules or other statute or rule.

 

C Stay or injunction in favor of public body. The federal government, any of its public corporations or commissions, the state, any of its public corporations or commissions, a county, a municipal corporation, or other similar public body shall not be required to furnish any bond or other security when a stay is granted by authority of section A of this rule in any action to which it is a party or is responsible for payment or performance of the judgment.

 

D Stay of judgment as to multiple claims or multiple parties. If a court enters a limited judgment under the provisions of Rule 67 B, the court may stay enforcement of the judgment and may prescribe such conditions as are necessary to secure the benefit thereof to the party in whose favor the judgment is entered. [CCP 12/13/80; §A amended by CCP 12/14/96; §A amended by 1997 c.71 §18; §D amended by 2003 c.576 §263]

 

JUDGMENTS BY CONFESSION

RULE 73

 

A Judgments which may be confessed.

A(1) For money due; where allowed. Judgment by confession may be entered without action for money due in the manner prescribed by this rule. Such judgment may be entered in any court having jurisdiction over the subject matter. The application to confess judgment shall be made in the county in which the defendants, or one of them, reside or may be found at the time of the application. A judgment entered by any court in any other county has no force or validity, notwithstanding anything in the defendant’s statement to the contrary.

A(2) Consumer transactions. No judgment by confession may be entered without action upon a contract, obligation, or liability which arises out of the sale of goods or furnishing of services for personal, family, or household use, or out of a loan or other extension of credit for personal, family, or household purposes, or upon a promissory note which is based upon such sale or extension of credit.

 

B Statement by defendant. A statement in writing must be made, signed by any party against whom judgment is to be entered or a person authorized to bind such party, and verified by oath, as follows:

B(1) It must authorize the entry of judgment for a specified sum;

B(2) It must state concisely the facts out of which it arose, and show that the sum confessed therefor is justly and presently due;

B(3) It must contain a statement that the person or persons signing the judgment understands that it authorizes entry of judgment without further proceeding which would authorize execution to enforce payment of the judgment; and

B(4) It must have been executed after the date or dates when the sums described in the statement were due.

 

C Application by plaintiff. Judgment by confession may be ordered by the court upon the filing of the statement required by section B of this rule. The judgment may be entered and enforced in the same manner and with the same effect as a judgment in an action.

 

D Confession by joint debtors. One or more joint debtors may confess a judgment for a joint debt due. Where all the joint debtors do not unite in the confession, the judgment shall be entered and enforced against only those who confessed it and it is not a bar to an action against the other joint debtors upon the same demand. [CCP 12/13/80]

 

RULES 74 through 77 (Reserved for Expansion)

 

ORDER OR JUDGMENT FOR SPECIFIC ACTS

RULE 78

 

A Judgment requiring performance considered equivalent thereto. A judgment requiring a party to make a conveyance, transfer, release, acquittance, or other like act within a period therein specified shall, if such party does not comply with the judgment, be deemed to be equivalent thereto.

 

B Enforcement; contempt. The court or judge thereof may enforce an order or judgment directing a party to perform a specific act by punishing the party refusing or neglecting to comply therewith, as for a contempt as provided in ORS 33.015 to 33.155.

 

C Application. Section B of this rule does not apply to an order or judgment for the payment of money, except orders and judgments for the payment of sums ordered pursuant to ORS 107.095 and 107.105 (1)(i), and money for support, maintenance, nurture, education, or attorney fees, in:

C(1) Actions for dissolution or annulment of marriage or separation from bed and board.

C(2) Proceedings upon support orders entered under ORS chapter 108, 109 or 110, or under ORS 416.400 to 416.465, 419B.400 or 419C.590. [CCP 12/13/80; 1985 c.610 §1; §C amended by CCP 12/13/86; §B amended by 1991 c.724 §31; §D repealed by 1991 c.724 §32; §C amended by 1993 c.33 §365; §C amended by 1995 c.608 §41; §C amended by 2003 c.14 §14; §C amended by 2007 c.71 §4]

 

TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDERS AND PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS

RULE 79

 

A Availability generally.

A(1) Circumstances. Subject to the requirements of Rule 82 A(1), a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction may be allowed under this rule:

A(1)(a) When it appears that a party is entitled to relief demanded in a pleading, and such relief, or any part thereof, consists of restraining the commission or continuance of some act, the commission or continuance of which during the litigation would produce injury to the party seeking the relief; or

A(1)(b) When it appears that the party against whom a judgment is sought is doing or threatens, or is about to do, or is procuring or suffering to be done, some act in violation of the rights of a party seeking judgment concerning the subject matter of the action, and tending to render the judgment ineffectual. This paragraph shall not apply when the provisions of Rule 83 E, F(4) and H(2) are applicable, whether or not provisional relief is ordered under those provisions.

A(2) Time. A temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction under this rule may be allowed by the court, or judge thereof, at any time after commencement of the action and before judgment.

 

B Temporary restraining order.

B(1) Notice. A temporary restraining order may be granted without written or oral notice to the adverse party or to such party’s attorney only if:

B(1)(a) It clearly appears from specific facts shown by an affidavit, a declaration or a verified complaint that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage will result to the applicant before the adverse party or the adverse party’s attorney can be heard in opposition, and

B(1)(b) The applicant or applicant’s attorney submits an affidavit or a declaration setting forth the efforts, if any, which have been made to notify defendant or defendant’s attorney of the application, including attempts to provide notice by telephone, and the reasons supporting the claim that notice should not be required. The affidavit or declaration required in this paragraph shall not be required for orders granted by authority of ORS 107.095 (1)(c), (d), (e), (f) or (g).

B(2) Contents of order; duration. Every temporary restraining order granted without notice shall be endorsed with the date and hour of issuance, shall be filed forthwith, shall define the injury and state why it is irreparable, and shall state why the order was granted without notice.

B(2)(a) Every temporary restraining order shall expire by its terms within such time after entry, not to exceed 10 days, as the court fixes, unless within the time so fixed the order, for good cause shown, is extended for a like period or unless the party against whom the order is directed consents that it may be extended for a longer period. The reasons for the extension shall be entered of record.

B(2)(b) The 10-day limit of paragraph (a) of this subsection does not apply to orders granted by authority of ORS 107.095 (1)(c), (d), (e), (f) or (g).

B(3) Hearing on preliminary injunction. In case a temporary restraining order is granted without notice, the motion for a preliminary injunction shall be set down for hearing at the earliest possible time and takes precedence over all matters except older matters of the same character. When the motion comes on for hearing the party who obtained the temporary restraining order shall proceed with the application for a preliminary injunction and, if such party does not do so, the court shall dissolve the temporary restraining order.

B(4) Adverse party’s motion to dissolve or modify. On two days’ notice (or on shorter notice if the court so orders) to the party who obtained the temporary restraining order without notice, the adverse party may appear and move for dissolution or modification of such restraining order. In that event the court shall proceed to hear and determine such motion as expeditiously as the ends of justice require.

B(5) Temporary restraining orders not extended by implication. If the adverse party actually appears at the time of the granting of the restraining order, but notice to the adverse party is not in accord with subsection C(1), the restraining order is not thereby converted into a preliminary injunction. If a party moves to dissolve or modify the temporary restraining order as permitted by subsection (4) of this section, and such motion is denied, the temporary restraining order is not thereby converted into a preliminary injunction.

 

C Preliminary injunction.

C(1) Notice. No preliminary injunction shall be issued without notice to the adverse party at least five days before the time specified for the hearing, unless a different period is fixed by order of the court.

C(2) Consolidation of hearing with trial on merits. Before or after the commencement of the hearing of an application for preliminary injunction, the parties may stipulate that the trial of the action on the merits shall be advanced and consolidated with the hearing of the application. The parties may also stipulate that any evidence received upon an application for a preliminary injunction, which would be admissible upon the trial on the merits, becomes part of the record on trial and need not be repeated upon the trial.

 

D Form and scope of injunction or restraining order. Every order granting a preliminary injunction and every restraining order shall set forth the reasons for its issuance, shall be specific in terms, shall describe in reasonable detail (and not by reference to the complaint or other document) the act or acts sought to be restrained, and is binding only upon the parties to the action, their officers, agents, servants, employees, and attorneys, and upon those persons in active concert or participation with any of them who receive actual notice of the order by personal service or otherwise.

 

E Scope of rule.

E(1) This rule does not apply to a temporary restraining order issued by authority of ORS 107.700 to 107.735, 124.005 to 124.040 or 163.760 to 163.777.

E(2) This rule does not apply to temporary restraining orders or preliminary injunctions granted pursuant to ORCP 83 except for the application of section D of this rule.

E(3) These rules do not modify any statute or rule of this state relating to temporary restraining orders or preliminary injunctions in actions affecting employer and employee.

 

F Writ abolished. The writ of ne exeat is abolished. [CCP 12/13/80; §E amended by 1995 c.666 §27; §B amended by 2003 c.194 §16; §A amended by 2005 c.22 §4a; §E amended by 2007 c.71 §5; §E amended by 2013 c.687 §18]

 

RECEIVERS

RULE 80

 

A Receiver defined. A receiver is a person appointed by a circuit court, or judge thereof, to take charge of property during the pendency of a civil action or upon a judgment or order therein, and to manage and dispose of it as the court may direct.

 

B When appointment of receiver authorized. Subject to the requirements of Rule 82 A(2), a receiver may be appointed by a circuit court in the following cases:

B(1) Provisionally to protect property. Provisionally, before judgment, on the application of any party, when such party’s right to the property, which is the subject of the action, and which is in the possession of an adverse party, is probable, and the property or its rents or profits are in danger of being lost or materially injured or impaired.

B(2) To effectuate judgment. After judgment to carry the same into effect.

B(3) To dispose of property, to preserve during appeal or when execution unsatisfied. To dispose of the property according to the judgment, or to preserve it during the pendency of an appeal or when an execution has been returned unsatisfied and the debtor refuses to apply the property in satisfaction of the judgment.

B(4) Creditor’s action. In an action brought by a creditor to set aside a transfer, mortgage, or conveyance of property on the ground of fraud or to subject property or a fund to the payment of a debt.

B(5) Attaching creditor. At the instance of an attaching creditor when the property attached is of a perishable nature or is otherwise in danger of waste, impairment, or destruction or where the debtor has absconded or abandoned the property and it is necessary to conserve or protect it, or to dispose of it immediately.

B(6) Protect, preserve, or restrain property subject to execution. At the instance of a judgment creditor either before or after the issuance of an execution to preserve, protect, or prevent the transfer of property liable to execution and sale thereunder.

B(7) Corporations and associations; when provided by statute. In cases provided by statute, when a corporation or cooperative association has been dissolved, or is insolvent, or in imminent danger of insolvency, or has forfeited its corporate rights.

B(8) Corporations and associations; to protect property or interest of stockholders or creditors. When a corporation or cooperative association has been dissolved or is insolvent or in imminent danger of insolvency and it is necessary to protect the property of the corporation or cooperative association, or to conserve or protect the interests of the stockholders or creditors.

 

C Appointment of receivers; notice. No receiver shall be appointed without notice to the adverse party at least five days before the time specified for the hearing, unless a different period is fixed by order of the court.

 

D Form of order appointing receivers. Every order or judgment appointing a receiver:

D(1) Shall contain a reasonable description of the property included in the receivership;

D(2) Shall fix the time within which the receiver shall file a report setting forth (a) the property of the debtor in greater detail, (b) the interests in and claims against it, and (c) its income-producing capacity and recommendations as to the best method of realizing its value for the benefit of those entitled;

D(3) Shall, when a general receiver is appointed to liquidate and wind up affairs, set a time within which creditors and claimants shall file their claims or be barred; and

D(4) May require periodic reports from the receiver.

 

E Notice to persons interested in receivership. A general receiver appointed to liquidate and wind up affairs shall under the direction of the court, give notice to the creditors of the corporation, of the partnership or association, or of the individual, in such manner as the court may direct, requiring such creditors to file their claims, duly verified, with the receiver, the receiver’s attorney, or the clerk of the court, within such time as the court directs.

 

F Special notices.

F(1) Required notice. Creditors filing claims with the receiver, all persons making contracts with the receiver, all persons having known claims against the receiver, all persons actually or constructively known to be claiming any interest in receivership property, and all persons against whom the receiver asserts claims shall receive notice of any proposed action by the court affecting their rights.

F(2) Request for special notice. At any time after a receiver is appointed, any person interested in the receivership as a party, creditor, or otherwise, may serve upon the receiver (or upon the attorney for such receiver) and file with the clerk a written request stating that such person desires special notice of any and all of the following named steps in the administration of the receivership:

F(2)(a) Filing of motions for sales, leases, or mortgages of any property in the receivership;

F(2)(b) Filing of accounts;

F(2)(c) Filing of motions for removal or discharge of the receiver; and

F(2)(d) Such other matters as are officially requested and approved by the court.

A request shall state the post-office address of the person, or such person’s attorney.

F(3) Form and service of notices. Any notice required by this section shall be served in the manner provided in Rule 9, at least five days before the hearing on any of the matters above described, unless a different period is fixed by order of the court.

 

G Termination of receiverships. A receivership may be terminated only upon motion served with at least 10 days’ notice upon all parties who have appeared in the proceeding. The court may require that a final account and report be filed and served, and may provide for the filing of written objections to such account within a specified time. At the hearing on the motion to terminate, the court shall hear all objections to the final account and shall take such evidence as is appropriate, and shall make such orders as are just concerning the termination of the receivership, including all necessary orders on the fees and costs of the receivership. [CCP 12/13/80; §§C,F amended by 1981 c.898 §§9a,10; §F(3) amended by CCP 12/10/88 and 1/6/89]

 

DEFINITIONS; SERVICE; ADVERSE CLAIMANTS

RULE 81

 

A Definitions. As used in Rules 81 through 85, unless the context otherwise requires:

A(1) Attachment. “Attachment” is the procedure by which an unsecured plaintiff obtains a judicial lien on defendant’s property prior to judgment.

A(2) Bank. “Bank” includes commercial and savings banks, trust companies, savings and loan associations, and credit unions.

A(3) Clerk. “Clerk” means clerk of the court or any person performing the duties of that office.

A(4) Consumer goods. “Consumer goods” means consumer goods as defined in ORS 79.0102.

A(5) Consumer transaction. “Consumer transaction” means a transaction in which the defendant becomes obligated to pay for goods sold or leased, services rendered, or monies loaned, primarily for purposes of the defendant’s personal, family, or household use.

A(6) Issuing officer. “Issuing officer” means any person who on behalf of the court is authorized to issue provisional process.

A(7) Levy. “Levy” means to create a lien upon property prior to judgment by any of the procedures provided by Rules 81 through 85 that create a lien.

A(8) Plaintiff and defendant. “Plaintiff” includes any party asserting a claim for relief whether by way of claim, third party claim, cross-claim, or counterclaim, and “defendant” includes any person against whom such claim is asserted.

A(9) Provisional process. “Provisional process” means attachment under Rule 84, claim and delivery under Rule 85, temporary restraining orders under Rule 83, preliminary injunctions under Rule 83, or any other legal or equitable judicial process or remedy which before entry of a judgment enables a plaintiff, or the court on behalf of the plaintiff, to take possession or control of, or to restrain use or disposition of, or fix a lien on property in which the defendant claims an interest, except an order appointing a provisional receiver under Rule 80 or granting a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction under Rule 79.

A(10) Security interest. “Security interest” means a lien created by agreement, as opposed to a judicial or statutory lien.

A(11) Sheriff. “Sheriff” includes a constable of a justice court.

A(12) Writ. A “writ” is an order by a court to a sheriff or other official to aid a creditor in attachment.

 

B Service of notices or orders; proof of service.

B(1) Service. Except where some other method is expressly permitted, any notice or order to show cause required or permitted to be served by Rules 81 through 85 shall be served in the manner in which a summons may be served.

B(2) Proof of service. Copies of all notices or orders to show cause shall be filed together with proof of service as provided in Rule 9 C.

 

C Adverse claimants. A person other than the defendant claiming to be the actual owner of property subject to provisional process, or any interest in such property, may move the court for an order establishing the claimant’s title or interest, extinguishing the plaintiff’s lien, or other appropriate relief. A hearing upon such motion shall be conducted within 20 days after service pursuant to Rule 9. After hearing:

C(1) Summary release of attachment. In a case where there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and the claimant is entitled to relief as a matter of law, the court may make an order establishing claimant’s title or interest, extinguishing or limiting the plaintiff’s lien, or granting other appropriate relief. In such case, the court may enter an order directing the plaintiff to pay the claimant the reasonable expenses incurred in securing such order, including attorney fees.

C(2) Continuation of attachment. In all other cases, the court shall order the provisional process continued pending judgment. Such order protects the sheriff but is not an adjudication between the claimant and the plaintiff. [CCP 12/13/80; amended by 1981 c.883 §36; §C amended by 1981 c.883 §37; §A amended by 1995 c.658 §120; §A amended by 2001 c.445 §186; §A amended by 2003 c.576 §264]

 

SECURITY; BONDS AND UNDERTAKINGS; JUSTIFICATION OF SURETIES

RULE 82

 

A Security required.

A(1) Restraining orders; preliminary injunctions.

A(1)(a) No restraining order or preliminary injunction shall issue except upon the giving of security by the applicant, in such sum as the court deems proper, for the payment of such costs, damages, and attorney fees as may be incurred or suffered by any party who is found to have been wrongfully enjoined or restrained.

A(1)(b) No security will be required under this subsection where:

A(1)(b)(i) A restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought to protect a person from violent or threatening behavior; or

A(1)(b)(ii) A restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought to prevent unlawful conduct when the effect of the injunction is to restrict the enjoined party to available judicial remedies.

A(2) Receivers. No receiver shall be appointed except upon the giving of security by the receiver in such sum as the court deems proper for the payment of any costs, damages, and attorney fees as may be sustained or suffered by any party due to the wrongful act of the receiver.

A(3) Attachment or claim and delivery.

A(3)(a) Before any property is attached under Rule 84 or taken by the sheriff under Rule 85, the plaintiff must file with the clerk a surety bond or an irrevocable letter of credit issued by an insured institution, as defined in ORS 706.008, in an amount fixed by the court, and to the effect that the plaintiff will pay all costs that may be adjudged to the defendant, and all damages which the defendant may sustain by reason of the attachment or taking, if the same be wrongful or without sufficient cause, not exceeding the sum specified in the bond or letter of credit.

A(3)(b) Upon motion by the defendant and a showing that defendant’s potential costs or damages exceed the amount of the bond or letter of credit, the court may require the plaintiff to give additional security.

A(3)(c) No bond or letter of credit shall be required before property is taken by the sheriff under Rule 85 if the court, in the order authorizing issuance of provisional process, finds that the claim for which probable cause exists is that defendant acquired the property contrary to law.

A(4) Other provisional process. No other provisional process shall issue except upon the giving of security by the plaintiff in such sum as the court deems proper, for payment of such costs, damages, and attorney fees as may be incurred or suffered by any party who is wrongfully damaged by such provisional process.

A(5) Form of security or bond. Unless otherwise ordered by the court under subsection (6) of this section, any security or bond provided for by these rules shall be in the form of a security bond issued by a corporate surety qualified by law to issue surety insurance as defined in ORS 731.186, or a letter of credit issued by an insured institution, as defined in ORS 706.008.

A(6) Modification of security requirements by court. The court may waive, reduce, or limit any security or bond provided by these rules, or may authorize a non-corporate surety bond or deposit in lieu of bond, or require other security, upon an ex parte showing of good cause and on such terms as may be just and equitable.

 

B Security; proceedings against sureties. Whenever these rules or other rule or statute require or permit the giving of security by a party, and security is given in the form of a bond or stipulation or other undertaking with one or more sureties, or in the form of an irrevocable letter of credit issued by an insured institution, as defined in ORS 706.008, each surety and each letter of credit issuer submits to the jurisdiction of the court and irrevocably appoints the clerk of the court as such surety’s or such issuer’s agent upon whom any papers affecting the surety’s or issuer’s liability on the bond, undertaking or letter of credit may be served. Any surety’s or issuer’s liability may be enforced on motion without the necessity of an independent action. The motion and such notice of the motion as the court prescribes may be served on the clerk of the court, who shall forthwith mail copies to the sureties or issuers if their addresses are known.

 

C Approval by clerk. Except where approval by a judge is otherwise required, the clerk is authorized to approve all irrevocable letters of credit, undertakings, bonds, and stipulations of security given in the form and amount prescribed by statute, rule, or order of the court, where the same are executed by a corporate surety under subsection D(2) of this rule, or where the same are issued by an insured institution, as defined in ORS 706.008.

 

D Qualifications of sureties.

D(1) Individuals. Each individual surety must be a resident of the state. If there is one individual surety, that surety must be worth twice the sum specified in the undertaking, exclusive of property exempt from execution, and over and above all just debts and liabilities; where there is more than one individual surety, each may be worth a lesser amount if the total net worth of all of them is equal to twice the sum specified in the undertaking. No attorney at law, peace officer, clerk of any court, or other officer of any court is qualified to be surety on the undertaking.

D(2) Corporations. A corporate surety must be qualified by law to issue surety insurance as defined in ORS 731.186.

 

E Affidavits or declarations of sureties.

E(1) Individuals. The bond or undertaking must contain an affidavit or a declaration of each surety which shall state that such surety possesses the qualifications prescribed by section D of this rule.

E(2) Corporations. The bond or undertaking of a corporate surety must contain affidavits or declarations showing the authority of the agent to act for the corporation and stating that the corporation is qualified to issue surety insurance as defined in ORS 731.186.

E(3) Service. When an irrevocable letter of credit, bond or undertaking is given for the benefit of a party, a copy of such letter of credit, bond or undertaking shall be served on that party promptly in the manner prescribed in Rule 9 A. Proof of service thereof shall thereupon be filed promptly in the court in which the letter of credit, bond or undertaking has been filed.

 

F Objections to sureties. If the party for whose benefit an irrevocable letter of credit, bond or undertaking is given is not satisfied with the sufficiency of the issuers or sureties, that party may, within 10 days after the receipt of a copy of the letter of credit or bond, serve upon the party giving the letter of credit or bond, or the attorney for the party giving the letter of credit or bond, a notice that the party for whose benefit the letter of credit or bond is given objects to the sufficiency of such issuers or sureties. If the party for whose benefit the letter of credit or bond is given fails to do so, that party is deemed to have waived all objection to the issuers or sureties.

 

G Hearing on objections to sureties.

G(1) Request for hearing. Notice of objections to an issuer or a surety as provided in section F of this rule shall be filed in the form of a motion for hearing on objections to the irrevocable letter of credit or bond. Upon demand of the objecting party, each issuer or surety shall appear at the hearing of such motion and be subject to examination as to such issuer’s or surety’s pecuniary responsibility or the validity of the execution of the letter of credit or bond. Upon hearing of such motion, the court may approve or reject the letter of credit or bond as filed or require such amended, substitute, or additional letter of credit or bond as the circumstances will warrant.

G(2) Information to be furnished. Sureties on any bond or undertaking and any irrevocable letter of credit issuers shall furnish such information as may be required by the judge approving the same.

G(3) Surety insurers. It shall be sufficient justification for a surety insurer when examined as to its qualifications to exhibit the certificate of authority issued to it by the Director of the Department of Consumer and Business Services or a certified copy thereof. [CCP 12/13/80; §D amended by 1981 c.898 §13; amended by 1991 c.331 §2; §G amended by 1995 c.79 §407; §§A,B,C amended by 1997 c.631 §§561,562,563; §E amended by 2003 c.194 §17]

 

PROVISIONAL PROCESS

RULE 83

 

A Requirements for issuance. To obtain an order for issuance of provisional process the plaintiff shall cause to be filed with the clerk of the court from which such process is sought a sworn petition and any necessary supplementary affidavits or declarations requesting specific provisional process and showing, to the best knowledge, information, and belief of the plaintiff, affiant or declarant that the action is one in which provisional process may issue, and:

A(1) The name and residence or place of business of the defendant;

A(2) Whether the underlying claim is based on a consumer transaction and whether provisional process in a consumer good is sought;

A(3)(a) If the provisional process sought is claim and delivery, a description of the claimed property in particularity sufficient to make possible its identification, and the plaintiff’s estimate of the value and location of the property;

A(3)(b) If the provisional process sought is a restraining order, a statement of the particular acts sought to be restrained;

A(4) Whether the plaintiff’s claim to provisional process is based upon ownership, entitlement to possession, a security interest or otherwise;

A(5) A copy or verbatim recital of any writing or portion of a writing, if plaintiff relies upon a writing, which evidences the origin or source of the plaintiff’s claim to provisional process;

A(6) Whether the claimed property is wrongfully detained by the defendant or another person;

A(7) Whether the claimed property has been taken by public authority for a tax, assessment, or fine;

A(8) If the plaintiff claims that the defendant has waived the right to be heard, a copy of the writing evidencing such waiver and a statement of when and in what manner the waiver occurred;

A(9) Facts, if any, which tend to establish that there is a substantial danger that the defendant or another person is engaging in, or is about to engage in, conduct which would place the claimed property in danger of destruction, serious harm, concealment, removal from this state, or transfer to an innocent purchaser;

A(10) Facts, if any, which tend to establish that without restraint immediate and irreparable injury, damage, or loss will occur;

A(11) Facts, if any, which tend to establish that there is substantial danger that the defendant or another person probably would not comply with a temporary restraining order; and

A(12) That there is no reasonable probability that the defendant can establish a successful defense to the underlying claim.

 

B Provisional process prohibited in certain consumer transactions. No court shall order issuance of provisional process to effect attachment of a consumer good or to effect attachment of any property if the underlying claim is based on a consumer transaction. Provisional process authorized by Rule 85 may issue in consumer transactions.

 

C Evidence admissible; choice of remedies available to court.

C(1) The court shall consider the affidavit, declaration or petition filed under section A of this rule and may consider other evidence including, but not limited to, an affidavit, a declaration, a deposition, an exhibit or oral testimony.

C(2) If from the affidavit, declaration or petition or other evidence, if any, the court finds that a complaint on the underlying claim has been filed and that there is probable cause for sustaining the validity of the underlying claim, the court shall consider whether it shall order issuance of provisional process, as provided in section D of this rule, or a restraining order, as provided in section E of this rule, in addition to a show cause order. The finding under this subsection is subject to dissolution upon hearing.

 

D Issuance of provisional process where damage to property threatened. Subject to section B of this rule, if the court finds that before hearing on a show cause order the defendant or other person in possession or control of the claimed property is engaging in, or is about to engage in, conduct which would place the claimed property in danger of destruction, serious harm, concealment, removal from this state, or transfer to an innocent purchaser or that the defendant or other person in possession or control of the claimed property would not comply with a temporary restraining order, and if Rule 82 A has been complied with, the court shall order issuance of provisional process in property which probably would be the subject of such destruction, harm, concealment, removal, transfer, or violation. Where real property is subject to provisional process as provided by this section, the plaintiff shall have recorded in the County Clerk Lien Record a certified copy of that order.

 

E Restraining order to protect property. Subject to section B of this rule, where hearing on a show cause order is pending or where the court finds that because of impending injury, destruction, transfer, removal, or concealment of the property in which provisional process is sought there is probable cause to believe that immediate and irreparable injury, damage, or loss to the plaintiff is imminent, and if Rule 82 A has been complied with, the court in its discretion may issue a temporary order directed to the defendant and each other person in possession or control of the claimed property restraining the defendant and each such other person from injuring, destroying, transferring, removing, or otherwise disposing of property and requiring the defendant and each such other person to appear at a time and place fixed by the court and show cause why such restraint should not continue during pendency of the proceeding on the underlying claim. Such order shall conform to the requirements of Rule 79 D. A restraining order under this section does not create a lien.

 

F Appearance; hearing; service of show cause order; content; effect of service on person in possession of property.

F(1) Subject to section B of this rule, the court shall issue an order directed to the defendant and each person having possession or control of the claimed property requiring the defendant and each such other person to appear for hearing at a place fixed by the court and at a fixed time after the third day after service of the order and before the seventh day after service of the order to show cause why provisional process should not issue. Upon request of the plaintiff the hearing date may be set later than the seventh day.

F(2) The show cause order issued under subsection (1) of this section shall be served on the defendant and on each other person to whom the order is directed.

F(3) The order shall:

F(3)(a) State that the defendant may file affidavits or declarations with the court and may present testimony at the hearing; and

F(3)(b) State that if the defendant fails to appear at the hearing the court will order issuance of the specific provisional process sought.

F(4) If at the time fixed for hearing the show cause order under subsection (1) of this section has not been served on the defendant but has been served on a person in possession or control of the property, and if Rule 82 A has been complied with, the court may restrain the person so served from injuring, destroying, transferring, removing, or concealing the property pending further order of the court or continue a temporary restraining order issued under section E of this rule. Such order shall conform to the requirements of Rule 79 D. Any restraining order issued under this subsection does not create a lien.

 

G Waiver; order without hearing. If after service of the order issued under subsection F(1) of this rule, the defendant by a writing executed by or on behalf of the defendant after service of the order expressly declares that defendant is aware of the right to be heard and does not want to be heard, that defendant expressly waives the right to be heard, that defendant understands that upon signing the writing the court will order issuance of the provisional process sought so that the possession or control of the claimed property will be taken from the defendant or another person, the court, subject to section B of this rule without hearing shall order issuance of provisional process.

 

H Authority of court on sustaining validity of underlying claim; provisional process; restraining order.

H(1) Subject to section B of this rule, if the court on hearing on a show cause order issued under section F of this rule finds that there is probable cause for sustaining the validity of the underlying claim and if Rule 82 A has been complied with, the court shall order issuance of provisional process. The order shall describe with particularity the provisional process which may be issued.

H(2) Subject to section B of this rule, if the court on hearing on a show cause order issued under section F of this rule finds that there is probable cause for sustaining the validity of the underlying claim but that the provisional process sought cannot properly be ordered, and if Rule 82 A has been complied with, the court in its discretion may continue or issue a restraining order of the nature described in section E of this rule. If a restraining order is issued, it shall conform to the requirements of Rule 79 D. A restraining order under this subsection does not create a lien. [CCP 12/13/80; §E amended by 1987 c.586 §44; §A amended by 1991 c.83 §6; §D amended by 1991 c.83 §7; amended by 2003 c.194 §18; §§A,C,H,I amended and §D deleted and §§E,F,G,H,I redesignated by CCP 12/11/04; §F amended by 2005 c.22 §4b]

 

ATTACHMENT

RULE 84

 

A Actions in which attachment allowed.

A(1) Order for provisional process. Before a writ of attachment may be issued or any property attached by any means provided by this rule, the plaintiff must obtain, and have recorded in the County Clerk Lien Record, an order under Rule 83 that provisional process may issue.

A(2) Actions in which attachment allowed. The plaintiff, at the time of issuing the summons or any time afterwards, may have the property of the defendant attached, as security for the satisfaction of any judgment that may be recovered, in the following cases:

A(2)(a) An action upon a contract, expressed or implied, for the direct payment of money, when the contract is not secured by mortgage, lien, or pledge, or when it is so secured but such security has been rendered nugatory by act of the defendant.

A(2)(b) An action against a defendant not residing in this state to recover a sum of money as damages for breach of any contract, expressed or implied, other than a contract of marriage.

A(2)(c) An action against a defendant not residing in this state to recover a sum of money as damages for injury to property in this state.

A(3) Exception for financial institution. Notwithstanding subsection (2) of this section, no attachment shall be issued against any financial institution, as that term is defined in ORS 706.008, or against the property of a financial institution.

 

B Property that may be attached. Only the following kinds of property are subject to lien or levy before judgment:

B(1) In actions in circuit court, real property;

B(2) Tangible personal property, including negotiable instruments and securities as defined in ORS 78.1020 except a certificate of an account or obligation or interest therein of a savings and loan institution;

B(3) Debts; and

B(4) The interest of a distributee of a decedent’s estate.

 

C Attachment by claim of lien.

C(1) Property subject to claim of lien. When attachment is authorized, the plaintiff may attach the defendant’s real property by filing a claim of lien.

C(2) Form of claim; filing.

C(2)(a) Form. The claim of lien must be signed by the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney and must:

C(2)(a)(i) Identify the action by names of parties, court, case number, and judgment demanded;

C(2)(a)(ii) Describe the particular property attached in a manner sufficient to identify it;

C(2)(a)(iii) Have a certified copy of the order authorizing the claim of lien attached to the claim of lien.

C(2)(a)(iv) State that an attachment lien is claimed on the property.

C(2)(b) Filing. A claim of attachment lien in real property shall be filed with the clerk of the court that authorized the claim and with the county clerk of the county in which the property is located. The county clerk shall certify upon every claim of lien so filed the time when it was received. Upon receiving the claim of lien, the county clerk shall immediately record it in the County Clerk Lien Record. When the claim of lien is so recorded, the lien in favor of the plaintiff attaches to the real property described in the claim of lien. Whenever such lien is discharged, the county clerk shall enter upon the margin of the page on which the claim of lien is recorded a minute of the discharge.

 

D Writ of attachment.

D(1) Issuance; contents; to whom directed; issuance of several writs. If directed by an order authorizing provisional process under Rule 83, the clerk shall issue a writ of attachment. The writ shall be directed to the sheriff of any county in which property of the defendant may be, and shall require the sheriff to attach and safely keep all the property of the defendant within the county not exempt from execution, or so much thereof as may be sufficient to satisfy the plaintiff’s demand, the amount of which shall be stated in conformity with the complaint, together with costs and expenses. Several writs may be issued at the same time to the sheriffs of different counties.

D(2) Manner of executing writ. The sheriff to whom the writ is directed and delivered shall note upon the writ the date of such delivery, and shall execute the writ without delay, as follows:

D(2)(a) Personal property not in possession of third party. Tangible personal property not in the possession of a third person shall be attached by taking it into the sheriff’s custody. If any property attached is perishable, or livestock, where the cost of keeping is great, the sheriff shall sell the same in the manner in which property is sold on execution. The proceeds thereof and other property attached shall be retained by the sheriff to answer any judgment that may be recovered in the action, unless sooner subjected to execution upon another judgment. Plaintiff’s lien shall attach when the property is taken into the sheriff’s custody.

D(2)(b) Other personal property. Tangible and intangible personal property in the possession, control or custody of or debts or other monetary obligations owing by a third person shall be attached by writs of garnishment issued by the clerk of a court or by an attorney as provided in ORS 18.600 to 18.850.

D(3) Notice to defendant. After taking property into custody under subsection (2)(a) of this section, the sheriff shall promptly mail or deliver to the defendant, at the last-known address of the defendant, a copy of the writ of attachment, a copy of the claim of lien filed pursuant to section C of this rule, if any, a notice of exemptions form provided by ORS 18.845, and a challenge to garnishment form provided by ORS 18.850. The sheriff may meet the requirements of this subsection by mailing the documents to the last-known address of the defendant as provided by the plaintiff. The sheriff may withhold execution of the writ until the plaintiff provides such address or a statement that the plaintiff has no knowledge of the defendant’s address. The sheriff shall have no duty under this subsection if the plaintiff provides a statement that the plaintiff has no knowledge of the defendant’s address.

D(4) Return of writ; inventory. When the writ of attachment has been fully executed or discharged, the sheriff shall return the same, with the sheriff’s proceedings indorsed thereon, to the clerk of the court where the action was commenced, and the sheriff shall make a full inventory of the property attached and return the same with the writ.

D(5) Indemnity to sheriff. Whenever a writ of attachment is delivered to the sheriff, if the sheriff has actual notice of any third party claim to the personal property to be levied on or is in doubt as to ownership of the property, or of encumbrances thereon, or damage to the property held that may result by reason of its perishable character, such sheriff may require the plaintiff to file with the sheriff a surety bond, indemnifying the sheriff and the sheriff’s bondsmen against any loss or damage by reason of the illegality of any holding or sale on execution, or by reason of damage to any personal property held under attachment. Unless a lesser amount is acceptable to the sheriff, the bond shall be in double the amount of the estimated value of the property to be seized.

 

E Disposition of attached property after judgment.

E(1) Judgment for plaintiff. If judgment is recovered by the plaintiff against the defendant, and it shall appear that property has been attached in the action, and has not been sold as perishable property or discharged from the attachment, the court shall order the property to be sold to satisfy the plaintiff’s demands, and if execution issue thereon, the sheriff shall apply the property attached by the sheriff or the proceeds thereof, upon the execution, and if any such property or proceeds remain after satisfying such execution, the sheriff shall, upon demand, deliver the same to the defendant; or if the property attached has been released from attachment by reason of the giving of the undertaking by the defendant, as provided by section F of this rule, the court shall upon giving judgment against the defendant also give judgment in like manner and with like effect against the surety in such undertaking.

E(2) Judgment not for plaintiff. If judgment is not recovered by the plaintiff, all the property attached, or the proceeds thereof, or the undertaking therefor, shall be returned to the defendant upon service upon the sheriff of a certified copy of the order discharging the attachment.

 

F Redelivery of attached property.

F(1) Order and bond. If an attachment deprives the defendant or any other person claiming the property of the possession or use of the property, the defendant or such person may obtain redelivery or possession thereof upon a court order authorizing such redelivery or possession. The moving party shall file a surety bond undertaking, in an amount fixed by the court, to pay the value of the property or the amount of plaintiff’s claim, whichever is less, if the same is not returned to the sheriff upon entry of judgment against the defendant. A motion seeking an order authorizing such redelivery or possession must state the moving party’s claim of the value of the attached property and must be served upon plaintiff as provided in Rule 9 at least five days prior to any hearing on such motion, unless the court orders otherwise. The property shall be released to the defendant upon the filing of the bond.

F(2) Defense of surety. In an action brought upon such undertaking against the principal or the sureties, it shall be a defense that the property for which the undertaking was given did not, at the execution of the writ of attachment, belong to the defendant against whom the writ was issued. [CCP 12/13/80; §§C,D amended by 1981 c.883 §§38,39; §§A,C amended by 1987 c.586 §§45,46; §D amended by 1987 c.873 §20; amended by 1997 c.439 §9; §A amended by 1997 c.631 §564; §D amended by 2001 c.249 §79; §§A,B,C amended by 2003 c.576 §§224,265,266]

 

CLAIM AND DELIVERY

RULE 85

 

A Claim and delivery. In an action to recover the possession of personal property, the plaintiff, at any time after the action is commenced and before judgment, may claim the immediate delivery of such property, as provided in Rule 83.

 

B Delivery by sheriff under provisional process order. The order of provisional process issued by the court as provided in Rule 83 may require the sheriff of the county where the property claimed may be to take the property from the defendant or another person and deliver it to the plaintiff.

 

C Custody and delivery of property. Upon receipt of the order of provisional process issued by the court as provided in Rule 83, the sheriff shall forthwith take the property described in the order, if it be in the possession of the defendant or another person, and retain it in the sheriff’s custody. If any part of the property is concealed in a building or other enclosure, the sheriff shall demand delivery of the property. If the property is not delivered, the sheriff shall break open the building or enclosure and take the property into possession. The sheriff shall keep the property in a secure place and deliver it to the party entitled thereto upon receiving the lawful fees for taking, and the necessary expenses for keeping the same. The court may waive the payment of such fees and expenses upon a showing of indigency.

 

D Filing of order by sheriff. The sheriff shall file the order, with the sheriff’s proceedings thereon, including an inventory of the property taken, with the clerk of the court in which the action is pending, within 10 days after taking the property; or, if the clerk resides in another county, shall mail or forward the same within that time.

 

E Dismissal prohibited. If property is taken by the sheriff pursuant to this rule, the plaintiff shall not dismiss the action under ORCP 54 A(1) until 30 days after such taking. [CCP 12/13/80; §C amended by 2003 c.85 §24]

 

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